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When he reached Wadi Daffran, he learned that the Meccans had deployed force to face them militarily. With that, the scene changed. Those who came to face a 70-member merchant group now had to face an army. The trade route to Syria is everything to the Meccans. Anything that disrupts it will affect every aspect of the Meccan’s lives. Because of that, the whole of Mecca is in turmoil. The Prophetﷺ got more information.
Prophetﷺ led the group forward with confidence. The hope of the Prophetﷺ is the help from Allah. Prophet Muhammadﷺ got a promise from Allah that he would get either the merchant group or ‘Eer’ or the army or ‘Nafir’. So there was no need to panic.
The Prophetﷺ gathered his followers. New news was shared. Diplomatic strategies to move forward were discussed. A great war is ahead that will change the course of the world.
Here beloved Prophetﷺ has to perform a great task. How to organize the measures of a defense as well as a moral war. The Prophetﷺ along with his companions proceeded to the Asafir Valley. He told his companions the situation of a war and then asked them. What should we do? Should the trade group be caught or should face the war?
Then a group said: If he had first told them about the possibility of a war, they could have prepared for it. Now they can follow the merchant group and leave the enemy. At this time, the Prophet’s face changed. It is then that the fifth verse of the eighth chapter of the holy Qur’an, Al-Anfal, revealed. The idea can be read as follows: “Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with the truth, through a party of the believers were surely averse;”.
The Prophetﷺ asked his companions again for their opinions. Then Abu Bakar (R) stood up and spoke. The gist of the talk was that they were ready for anything with self-sacrifice. Then Umar (R) stood up. The Muhajirs are ready for battle with courage and stopped saying that our courage has not been lost. Again, the Prophetﷺ sought the opinion of his companions. Then Miqdad bin Amr said, “O Messenger of Allah! Go ahead as He commanded! We will not say you, ‘You and your God go and fight, and we will sit here.’ As the Israelites said to their prophet. We will say, You and your Lord engage in war. We will be with you.” By Allah! we will stand with you as long as our eyelids move. Perhaps you may lead us to the farthest end of the Arabian peninsula, Barkulgimad, then also we will be with you.” Hearing this the face of the Prophetﷺ brightened. He smiled and prayed for Miqdad.
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The Prophetﷺ spoke to his companions again and asked them to express their opinion. The purpose of the question was how the Ansar or the people of Madeena would react. Because the Prophetﷺ had memories of the earlier agreement with the people of Madeena . It only mentioned that protection would be provided in Madeena. It was necessary to know what would be their stance in this move outside of Madeena .
Despite the Muhajirs or Meccan companions declaring their full support, the Ansar realized that the reason behind seeking, was to know their opinion. Immediately Sa’ad bin Mu’ad (R) got up and started speaking. O Messenger of Allah! Aren’t you intending us? The Prophetﷺ said ‘yes’. Then Sa’ad continued. “We believed in you. We accepted you as the true messenger from Allah. We accepted your religion as the true religion. We obeyed your orders. So proceed with what He commanded. We will be with you. By Allah who appointed you! If you point to the sea and go down to it, we will also go down with you. Notne of us will be left behind. We will not hesitate to face our enemy. We will be brave in fighting and patient in the hardships of war. With the blessing of Allah, you may move forward. May you receive pleasant sights from us.
Another narration of Sa’ad’s conversation is as follows: “You may think that the Ansars have no obligation to help you except in their own country. But I am speaking as a representative of the Ansar. Travel wherever you wish. Keep relations with those who are interested and cut ties with those who are not interested. You decide for yourself whom to make peace with and whom to be in enmity with.” Take as much of our property as you like from us. We would like more what you take than what you leave behind. We will always be ready to obey any of your commands. We will be on your left, right, front and back.
By the time he heard this, his eyes widened. His face was filled with light. His joy was evident. Immediately he said, “You walk forward. We will defeat one or two groups, either the Eer or the trading group. Or the Nafir or the army. Allah has promised me that. It is as if I see the leaders of the enemy ranks falling dead before my eyes.”
It was clear in that speech that the departure was to achieve a direct victory to a strong army.
Now the Muslim group is moving forward carrying three flags. Two black and one white flag. The white flag was carried by Mis’ab bin Umair. One of the black flags was held by Ali and the second one by Sa’adu bin Mu’ad,(R) the leader of the Ansars. Imam Waqidi said that the flag was not raised when leaving Madeena.
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Now let’s see where the Quraish arrived. They set out in celebration. They prepared food lavishly every day. When they reached Marrullahran, Abu Jahl slaughtered ten camels. But there was an incident. One of the camels ran in fear of death. Blood gushed from the camel reached to the tents where people lived. Observing this as a bad omen, the Banu Adiy tribe left for the country.
The journey of the Quraish to Badr lasted for ten days. The number of camels slaughtered in each place can be read as follows. Umayat bin Khalaf nine in Uzfan. Suhail bin Amr ten in Qadeed. Shaibat bin Rabia: nine in Manat. There the traveling party stayed for one day. Utbat bin Rabi’a: ten at Juhfa. Maqees bin Umar nine camels at Abawa. On the seventh day, ten by the sons of Hajjaj; Nabih and Munabbih. On the eighth and ninth days, Abbas bin Abdul Mutalib slaughtered ten camels and Harith bin Amr bin Naufal nine camels respectively. On the tenth day, Abul Bukhtiri slaughtered all ten camels at Badr.
When the group reached Juhfa, a strange event happened. A Muttalib leader named Juhaim bin Swalat had a dream; A man was coming on a horse. He was accompanied by another camel. Then he shouted loudly. Utbatu bin Rabi’a: He was killed. Shaibat bin Rabi’a : was Killed. Abul Hakam bin Hisham was killed. He named the Quraish chieftains and said that they were killed. Then he cut the hump of his camel and sent it to the camp of the Quraish. The blood splashed from this camel reached on all the tents.
Hearing this dream, Abu Jahl laughed sarcastically. And then said. Oh! Another prophet has come from the family of Abdul Mutalib. Who will be killed in the battle tomorrow? Let us wait and see.
The Quraish strength was between nine hundred and fifty and one thousand men. Seven hundred and fifty camels and hundred horses. Armours for the infantry and cavalry. This dream seemed a joke to the leader of a powerful army that was going forward with all these equipments.
But the dreams of Atwiqa and Juhaim influenced at least some of the Quraish army. It worried many of the Mutalib family in particular, but the leaders of the group could not retreat out of fear and shame.
In the meantime, another important event happened. At Juhfa itself, the Quraish army met the messenger of Abu Sufyan, the head of the Quraish trading group. He informed them that the trading group had reached Mecca safely. The Messenger also conveyed Abu Sufyan’s message that by the grace of the Almighty they have reached Mecca safely and that the army should return without making any trouble. But the arrogance of the Quraish leaders did not allow them to retreat. Abu Jahl shouted loudly, “By God! We will not go back… The group went to Badr for three days and encamped. They slaughtered the camels and served a feast.
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Apart from his pride, Abu Jahl also had an idea that the Muslims will be cowards. If they find out that the merchant group has escaped, they will return to the Madeena . They might have already known the size, and prowess of the army that left Mecca , so they will never be ready for a battle. Let’s go to Mecca announcing the glory. Let’s return to the old glory. Let’s keep the supremacy we had over the tribes. This is how Abu Jahl’s internal thoughts continue.
On the other hand, the Prophet ﷺ and his followers had to perform some duties. It can be read like this. It was not logical to leave the Quraish in this arrogance and pride. While the help from Allah was promised, either the trade group or the military victory should have been achieved . If the Quraish were not confronted, the non-Muslim tribes and Jewish- Christian groups living in Madeena, might break away from the alliance and attempt for an invasion, thinking that the Muslims are weak. It may again become a threat to Madeena and the believers.
At Badr, now there are the Muslim group preparing for a defense on precise grounds and the Quraish group fighting with obvious pride .A group of people who left their homeland, close friends and relatives for a great faith and came to a distance of more than four hundred kilometers and moved forward peacefully. The enemy side, who thought that those who disagreed with them should not exist anymore and live peacefully in the country where they sought refuge, came to destroy them.
Why should we go to war? Didn’t our trading group escape and reach Mecca? Have we lost any thing? There were those who thought all these things among the Quraish side.
Abu Sufyan learned of Abu Jahl’s stance that he had decided to go back to Mecca even though he was told to return to Mecca . It was Qais bin Imri ul Yais who shared the information. Immediately Abu Sufyan said, “Woe to our people! This is the work of Amr bin Hisham. He will not return. He is causing trouble to the people he leads. This is a bad omen and a crime. Sure!” If Muhammad ﷺ and his group met our group, they would follow them until they were brought back to Mecca.
We can see another picture of the Quraish under internal pressure. Ubayy bin Shuraikh was an ally and prominent leader of the Banu Zahra tribe. He approached the Banu Zahra tribe and said, ‘God has saved your wealth. Your representative Makhrumat bin Noufal has also arrived unharmed. Now our problem is humiliation. I am ready to take the responsibility. Things are not as Abu Jahl says. Why should you go for something that is of no use to you? Go back to your country.” The Banu Zahras realized the truth . They returned to their country. From then on, Ubayy’s name changed to Akhnas bin Shuraikh, or the one who retreated.
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When Akhnas found Abu Jahl alone, asked, “What is your opinion about Prophet Muhammadﷺ? Do you have any opinion that he is a liar?” No, we used to call that person ‘Al-Ameen’, but the Mutalib sons are in charge of all the affairs of Mecca, such as consultation, water supply for the pilgrims. We do not wish to entrust the prophethood to one of them. That is the problem. And what do we have then.?
It became clear to Akhnas that Abu Jahl was driven by jealousy and lust for power. That was the reason for retreat of Akhnas.
Let us read another scene before the Quraish reached Badr.
They were traveling near the settlement of the tribe of Ghifar. Imaau bin Rahla, a chief who was there, sent ten camels with his son to the Quraish and said, “If you like, we are ready to help you with men and weapons. We will perform our duty.” But the Quraish responded. ‘You have connected family ties and fulfilled duties. By the God, we have no shortage in confronting Muhammadﷺ and his group. Now, as Muhammad said, if we are fighting Allah, then no one can defeat Him!.
Another account of this incident is as follows. Khifaf, the son of Imau, says that it was very dear to my father to bring harmony among the people. When the Quraish were passing to Badr, he sent me to them with ten camels to give them. When I began to drive the camels my father also joined with me. I handed over the camels. They distributed it among the tribes. Then my father went to Utba, their leader, and asked, “Oh , Abulwaleed, what is this journey for ?” ‘I do not know. By God , I am a loser.’ He replied. Then father asked. “Aren’t you the leader of the people? Return with them. What is the obstacle in not doing so. Take the blood money of your ally Amru bin Al Halrami. You also take responsibility for the camels captured by the Muslims at Batwnu Nakhl. Now these are the only things you need to get from Muhammadﷺ. By Allah! If Abul Waleed kills Muhammad (ﷺ) and followers, it means we kill ourselves.”
There are different historical readings on the intervention of Ima’u; that he had already accepted Islam and was not on the Quraish side at Badr.
In any case, the enemy of Islam could not form a unanimous opinion on the journey to Badr. These events indicate that. Towards the end of the war, the mood of many people was lost . Internal dissensions grew. Many people were gripped by fear.
The group marched forward again and the proud leaders boasted. The cursed devil appeared as an ally. ‘I am with you and no one can defeat you’ he shouted.
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The time for the battle of Badr is near. The Quraish were anxious to know the situation of the Muslim group. They appointed Umair bin Wahab as a spy. Umair moved towards the tents of the Muslims. He observed the premise. After observing the condition, he returned to the Quraish group and said, “They will be about three hundred people.” It may be a little more.
Is there anyone lurking in the surrounding area?. They doubted. I will also check if there are any hiding spots in the area. I need some more time for that. Then Umair traveled a long way across the valley. He made a detailed search. But he could not find any secret shelters or hideouts. Umair returned from the search and shared the information accurately with the Quraish. Then he said: “O Quraish! I did not see anything special, but I saw with them camels carrying death.” .I feel that the water-drawing camels of Yathrib carry death in a terrible way. Have you not seen the companions of Prophet Muhammadﷺ who keep silence waiting for the order. Do you not notice that they look with eyes like stones in the stream? They have not come to go back to their families. They only have their swords with them.
No shields or armor. By the God, I think that one of them will not be killed until one of you is killed. So if people are killed from us up to their strength, then what is the meaning is of our lives. Think about it and say. What is our decision?
Umair thought of going back after seeing the bad omen. Hakeem bin Hizam also came forward. He approached Utba and asked, “O Abul Waleed! Aren’t you an acceptable leader of the Quraish? Are you ready for a plan and a decision that will make you remember well forever?”. What is that Hakeem ?. Utba asked. You return with with those who came with you. Take up the responsibility of Amr bin Halrami. He is the member of your ally. Yes. I will be responsible for the blood money and lost property. But you must deal with Amr bin Hisham or Abu Jahl.” Then Utbah bin Rabeea addressed the Quraish. O Quraish !
By Allah,! You have nothing to gain by confronting Muhammadﷺ and his followers. Suppose If you kill them, there will be accusations such as you killed the sons of your own uncle. Later, you will see faces that you do not like and disputes among you. So leave Muhammadﷺ and his companions alone. On the other hand If they gain, then the Quraish will be proud of.
Oh, people, you may think of the shame of going back. Lay it on me. You may say I have become a coward. That’s okay too. You are not ignorant of Utba’s bravery. Utba, who took the burden of humiliation and blood money by considering Hakim’s opinion, went to the Quraish and tried to convince them of the facts. I seek refuge from the One who created these faces that shine like lamps against the serpent-eyed faces. Or I do not like the Quraish and the Ansars to be in confrontation.
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Hakeem considered Utba’s suggestion. Anyway, he decided to approach Abu Jahl. When he reached there, Abu Jahl was taking out his armour from the leather bag. Hakeem asked, Oh Amr bin Hisham ! . Utba wanted to ask you that “Why can’t you avert confronting your uncle’s son (or Muhammadﷺ)?”. Abu Jahl got angry as soon as he heard it. Has he not received anyone else as his messenger but you? No one needs me as a messenger except Utba ! Hakeem responded.
Oh what a fear ! (Of Utba). He is a coward . Muhammad ﷺ, is accompanied by only a group who are too small to eat a camel. And his son (Abu Hudaifa) is one among the Muslims . It is the fear that he will be killed that makes Utba so cowardly.
There is also like this in an another report . Oh, are you talking like this ? If someone else had said this, I would have abused his mother, “You are a coward, aren’t you?” I will not retreat from this until a decision is reached between us and Muhammad ﷺ. He asserted.
There is also a narration like this. Immediately after Hakeem’s conversation, Abu Jahl called out the Quraish. Utba said this because Muhammad ﷺ is his uncle’s son and his own son is with Muhammad ﷺ. He is held back by the fear that they might be killed.
Abu Jahl was not calm.He entered into conversation to provoke the Quraish. Amir bin Al Halrami, the brother of Amr bin Al Halrami, who was killed, was called and said, “Didn’t you hear what your ally Utba said ?” Utba says that we should go back with the people. Utba will give you the blood money of your brother . Aren’t you ashamed to accept it? Will you avoid your brother’s killer right in front of your eyes? If you take revenge, don’t you remember the promises made to you? Think about it .
Aamir’s blood boiled. He stood up and stripped his clothes from the back. He sprinkled dust on his body. Then he screamed. What a pity ! Oh my brother Amr. The efforts of Hakeem and Utba failed. Finally Utba said, “Let’s wait and see…. Who is afraid and who is coward?”
The Prophet ﷺ and his group continued their journey and reached ‘Dabba’ near Badr. The Prophet ﷺ and Abu Bakar (R) went down to assess the information of the enemy and to observe the surroundings . During the journey, they met an old man named Sufianu Lamari. They asked him about the Quraish and the Muslim group. He said, “If you tell me who you are, I will give you the information”. “If you give us the information, we will tell you who we are.” Said The Prophetﷺ and Abu Bakar (R). Then he started saying that; ‘ I came to know that Muhammad and his followers left on such a particular day . If it is right, they might have reached at such and such place. The place he said was correct. According to what I knew, the Quraish must have reached this area as per the day they left. Then he asked ;where are you from ?. After saying “Minal Mau”, which means ‘from the water’, they pointed towards Iraq. The old man asked, “Isn’t it from Ma’ul Iraq or near the water in Iraq?”. Soon the Prophet ﷺ and Sidheeq (R) returned. By “Minal Mau”, they intended that everyone was born from water.
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The Prophetﷺ again questioned the people who had been captured and brought by the Muslim. They informed that the Quraish were encamped behind the Udwat al-Quswa dune. They explained that they did not know their exact number, but there were many people and a strong fighting group. Then the Prophetﷺ asked. How many camels are slaughtered for food everyday? If one day is nine, then the next day is ten. Right. In that case, there will be between nine thousand and one thousand people. The Prophetﷺ came to the conclusion. Normally, if one camel is slaughtered, there will be meat for hundred people to eat. Then the Prophetﷺ asked who are the prominent people in the Quraish group? They said: Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Suhail bin Amr, Utbat bin Rabeea: Shaibat bin Rabeea: Abul Bukhtiri bin Hisham., Haris bin Amir, Nalar bin Haris, Tuaimat bin Adiyy, Sam’ at bin Aswad, Amr bin Abduwud, Umayyat bin Khalaf, Nabih bin Hajjaj, Munabbih bin Hajjaj, Hakeem bin Hisam, Naufal bin Quwailid etc. are all prominent. Then the Prophet ﷺ said to his Companions, “Look, Mecca has thrown to you pieces of it’s liver.”
By the time the trial was going on in the Muslim camp, the third person who had escaped from the Companions reached the Quraish camp. He said. “O Quraish! The son of Abu Kabsha (the Prophetﷺ) and his followers have arrived at Badr. They have captured those who went to collect water for you.”
Hearing this, the Quraish were shaken. The news was beyond their expectations. The smoke of resentment rose from the Quraish camp.
Some sadness arose from the Muslim camp; We are the people of truth who should win. But we are far from the source of water. Not enough water for drinking and bathing. Some have to take a bath if they want to pray. Quraish were evil-doers. But they camped near Udwat al-Khuswa. Water would be easy for them. The area around our tent is sandy. Not good ground to walk on. What is going to happen. If we get tired due to thirst, it would be easy for the Quraish. We may be captured and taken to Mecca. Some people’s thoughts went like this. There was dark cloud in the sky. It rained heavily. The Muslims enjoyed the rain by bathing, drinking and filling pots. The sands around them became firm. No difficulty to walk now.
But the same rain was unfavourable for the Quraish. The area of their camp became muddy. They could not even go to fetch water. They were panicked. The same rain was a blessing to the believers and a disaster in the enemy’s camp. The holy Qur’an presented this scene. The meaning of the eleventh verse of the eighth chapter of Al Anfal can be read as follows: “Remember the time when Allah covered you with sleep with peace from Him. To purify you and remove from you the mischief of the devil. And remember the time when He poured water on you from the sky to give strength to your minds and to keep your feet firm.”
This is how Ali(R) shares his memories of this crucial night. We had a good rain during the night. Everyone slept well at night. But the Prophetﷺ stayed beneath a tree trunk in prayer until dawn.
It was on the seventeenth Friday of Ramadan in the second year of Hijra. The Holy Prophetﷺ, who was in prostration for a long time, sat repeating the mantra “Ya Hayyu Ya Qayyum” and then prayed. “Oh Allah, if this small group is eliminated, You will not be worshipped here”.
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When he heard the prayer of the Prophetﷺ, Abu Bakar (R) said, “No, O Prophet, it is enough! They will turn back as defeated anyway. Don’t worry about that!”
‘So it was time for the morning prayer. The Companions were drowsy due to the warmth of the rain. The leader Prophetﷺ, who was awake in prayer, woke up his followers. They prayed in congregation. Here is something more to read from the narration of Ibn Hisham(R). That very night, the Companions moved towards the well and occupied the water reservoir. That was the first diplomatic military operation of the group of Prophet ﷺ. There Khabab bin Mundirbin Al-Jamuh came forward. He is an Ansari follower from the Banu Salama tribe. He is a good visionary in war tactics.He asked the Prophetﷺ; Oh Prophetﷺ, Is this place was precisely fixed by Allah ?. Is there any command from Allah that we should not change from here? Can we change the place according to the stratagem of war. The Prophet ﷺ said ; No problem . Then Khabbab (R)said. But let’s not stop here. Let’s move towards the water source of the Quraish. Let’s make a reservoir and collect the water in it. The Prophetﷺ agreed. The companions set up a reservoir and stored water in it.
After that, Sa’ad bin Mu’ad (R) asked. Should we build a hut for you here ? So you can sit here?
We can keep our vehicles etc. here. We will face the enemy. If we get victory, we will be very happy with glory. That is what we are interested in. Otherwise, if there is any military defeat, you can get on a vehicle and arrive with our rear ranks! Those who did not come with us, love you more than we do . If they had known that we were going to a war front, they would have been with us. Because of that, they would protect you at any cost. They would have stood with us on the battlefield.
These words made the Prophetﷺ happy. He prayed a special blessing for Sa’ad. A hut was built there. At that place a Masjid was built later. That masjid is known as Masjid al-Areesh. It was arranged in such a way that the Prophetﷺ could see the battle scene directly.
Sa’ad bin Mu’ad (R) stood at the door of the hut with his sword. The Prophetﷺ and Abu Bakar(R) entered the hut. The Prophetﷺ appointed Abdullah bin Masuood and Ammar bin Yasir(R) to find out about the situation of the Quraish. O Messenger of Allah! They are fearful and worried. It can be seen in the hadeeth narrated by Imam Muslim(R) that the Prophetﷺ reached the battlefield on the morning of Badr. He pointed out some places with his hands. This is where ‘he’ will fall on the ground. He counted many of the prominent people of the Quraish. Anas(R) says. The next day we could see that every prominent person had fallen on the ground without any change to the place that the Prophetﷺ had pointed out.
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The decisive night ended. After the morning prayer, the Prophetﷺ addressed Companions with great energy. “Praise be to Allah. Indeed, Allah is Great. Glory be to Him. I encourage what He commanded. I also forbid what He forbids. He gives to the good people according to the status He has bestowed on them. So they remember Him and attain excellence. You have reached the abode of truth. He will only accept actions aimed at the pleasure of Allah. Through patience in times of crisis, Allah will remove the hardships of the heart. He will save you from calamities. You will be successful in other world. You will have with you prophets who will give you good news and warnings. Be ashamed of the situation where Allah may be angry with you. Says Allah. ‘Rather than being angry with yourself, grievous is the wrath of Allah’. Listen to what Allah has commanded in His Book and revealed in His Word. Look forward to glory after humiliation. You desire His favor
You deserve the mercy and forgiveness your Lord has promised you. Strive for it. Indeed His promise is true. The word is real. The punishment will be severe. Allah is the reason for our existence. He is ever-living and sovereign. We took refuge in Him. He saved us. We entrusted Him. To Him is our return. May Allah forgive me and the Muslims.
The companions were filled with awe. They once again realized the value and importance of the faith. Knowing the movements of the Quraish camp, Ammar and Ibn Masuood, returned. Nabih bin Al-Hajjaj, an expert in recognising foot-prints, recognized their footprints. He said. These are the footprints of the son of Sumayya or Ammar and the son of Ummu Abd or Ibn Masuood. Muhammad has brought the fools from among us and those of Madeena. He meant the Muhajirs and the Ansars. Then he sang like this. We could not move because of fear Either kill or die…
The Prophet gathered his followers. Set up the line as the line in prayer. In the meantime, there was a curious incident. The Prophetﷺ noticed that Sawad, who was standing in the line, was standing a little forward . The Prophetﷺ hit his stomach with the stick he had and cleared the line. Sawad used this as a good opportunity. He called out and said, “O Messenger of Allah, you have hurt me. Didn’t Allah appoint you with truth and justice? Therefore, you should allow me to take revenge.” The Prophetﷺ accepted Sawad’s request. The rod was handed over to him. Sawad’s next demand was to remove the clothes from his stomach. The Prophetﷺ permitted it. Everyone was surprised. What is Savad going to do?
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Savad became relieved. He is very happy as he was able to embrace the noble leader. The Prophetﷺ asked Sawad. Sawad ! why are behaving like this? O Messenger of Allah! As you know, the war is imminent! I wanted my last hug touching your blessed body. The Prophetﷺ prayed for Sawad.
A similar incident can be read here. There was a jester. He told jokes and made everyone laugh. Once when he joked, the Prophetﷺ poked him on his back with a small stick that he had. He wanted to take revenge. The Prophetﷺ agreed. You are standing here wearing dress. And when you poked me, I had no dress on my body. Soon the Prophetﷺ removed his dress. The follower became satisfied kissing the Prophetﷺ for a long time. It was narrated by Imam Abu Dawood(R).
We have read scenes in which the Prophetﷺ appears as the epitome of justice and fairness. The relevance of the law and the freedom of any one to ask for his right, is highlighted in these incidents. The depth and closeness of the association that the Prophetﷺ had with his followers and others, is clearly shown here. And the followers of the beloved Prophetﷺ did not hesitate to mark their affection for the Prophetﷺ in any crisis. They also had the belief that nothing related to his highness will be ignited by hellfire.
On the morning of Badr, the Prophetﷺ went down to his followers and infused them with fighting spirit. He instilled in them the energy to stand firm on the battlefield. The Prophetﷺ prescribed the procedures to be followed in defense. An archer should shoot only when he sees that it is good for him to reach the target. A sword may be unsheathed only when surrounded by enemies.
The Giffar tribesmen were surprised to hear these instructions. It was very surprise for them who were used to fight and kill without any special plan or aim. They did not know a holy war for a great cause unitedly. They were familiar with cutting, stabbing, spearing and seizing the property of the losers. That was what they had come expecting. But the picture was different.
The Prophetﷺ said encouraging his followers. “By Whom is the soul of Prophet Muhammadﷺ, (Or by Allah) Those who fight with patience and desire of reward, and do not turn back, will surely be in Heaven if they are martyred.” There, Sam’at bin Al Aswad and his son watching Badr on the horseback. They were the first to emerge from the enemy camp. They were looking for a safe place. Then the Prophetﷺ went back to prayer. Let us understand the content of the prayer later.
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“O Allah, the Quraish are advancing because of their pride and arrogance. They disobey Your commands and are hostile to You. They disbelieve in Your Messenger and reject. So, O Allah! hasten the victory, You have promised! O Allah! You have revealed to me the Book. You have told me to stand bravely. You have promised me either a group or the other. One of them escaped. Indeed, ‘You are not the One Who break promise. O Allah, defeat them early in the morning? Do not let Abu Jahl, the pharaoh of this community, escape! O Allah!. Don’t let Sam’ath bin Aswad to escape. Make lose the eyesight of Abu Sama’ . Don’t allow Suhail to escape”.
The Prophetﷺ gave the flag to Misab bin Umair(R) and then he went to the place that the Prophetﷺ had instructed. The Prophetﷺ was watching the line of his followers. The Muslim army stood facing the west with the sun behind. The Quraish stood facing the sun. A follower came to the Prophetﷺ and said. Oh Messenger of Allah! If you stand here according to the instructions of Allah, then there is no problem. Otherwise it would be better to stand in the upper part of the valley. A scent is felt from that place. As if help has descended there! The Prophetﷺ responded. I have already deployed the army and also handed over the flag. I will continue here now.
Look at the leadership excellence of the Prophetﷺ; Listens to the opinions of followers. Accepts what is acceptable. That is what we read about in the act of encampment by the pool of water. And taking decisions with a clear stance, vision and determination. That is what we read in the last.
The Prophetﷺ entered the hut again and absorbed himself in prayer. Abu Jahl also had a prayer when he came to face the Muslims. It was like this: “O God! Destroy that person this morning who introduced us to an unfamiliar religion and severed our family ties!” It was during this time that the 19th verse of the 8th chapter of Al-Anfal of the Holy Qur’an was revealed. The idea can be read as follows: “O disbelievers, if you sought victory, then that victory has come to you. And if you desist, it will be better for you; and if you turn back (to fight), We (too) shall turn back. No matter how numerous your party is, it will not avail you. Allah is with the believers.”
A group of the Quraish came to draw water from the well of the Muslims. Some of the Companions tried to to stop them. The Prophetﷺ forbade them. But all but one who drew water from it, was killed in the battle. Hakim ibn Hizam was the one who survived in the battle. Later he embraced Islam and led a pious life. He often praised Allah in his later life for this escape. He often used to say, ‘By Allah, who saved me at Badr’.
Now let’s look at the battle field…
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The Prophetﷺ convinced the greatness of warriors. Promised entry to heaven. Umair Ibnul Humam, who was eating dates, paid attention to this words and immediately called out and said. Alas!why should I be late in attaining heaven by being killed by the enemy’s weapon. He rushed straight to the battlefield and was finally martyred.
The polytheists came to the valley from behind the “Akhankhal” mountain. They had not slept the night before. They were in anxiety and mental conflict. The thought of whether to fight or not, made them more depressed. They came to the battlefield with a less-interested mind.
At the same time, in the eyes of the Muslims, the enemies seemed like a small group. Abdullah ibn Masuood(R) says. On the day of Badr, they seemed to be just a small group. I myself asked one of the companions, “There must be about seventy of them, right?” He replied that he thought there would be a hundred people. Referring to this thought, the Holy Qur’an revealed the forty-three and forty-four verses of the eighth chapter, Al Anfal. The idea is as follows”Remember the condition when Allah showed them (the enemies) only a few in your sight. If you had been shown more of them, you would have lost your courage and you would have differed in the matter. But Allah saved. Indeed, He is the Knower of what is in the hearts. “Remember the scene when He made them few in your sight when you met, and made you few in number in their sight. That was in order for Allah to accomplish a thing that had to be done. To Allah return things.”
The verse that clarifies the reason and course of such a battle, is the thirteenth verse of Aal-Imran, the second chapter. The idea can be copied as follows: “Verily you have an example in the two factions that clashed at Badr. One faction fights in the way of Allah and the other disbelievers. Whom they saw twice as many as themselves with the sight of the eye and Allah strengthens with His aid whom He pleases; most surely there is a good lesson in it for those who have eyes.”
There is an interesting idea conveyed by these verses. Before the war started, both sides felt that the other side was small. It was to prepare both factions to face each other with confidence. As the fighting began, the real strength became clear.
When the armies faced each other in the field of Badr, the Prophetﷺ was engrossed in prayer. “O Allah, fulfill your promise to me! O Allah, help me! Help me! His hands were raised to the sky. Then the dress fell from his shoulders. Seeing the Prophetﷺ pleading with Allah, Sidheeq(R) felt compassion. He straightened his dress and comforted him with a pat on the shoulder.” Messenger of Allah! Your prayer is sufficient and indeed Allah will help you. “The beloved Prophetﷺ was comforted.On this occasion that the ninth verse of the eighth chapter of the Holy Qur’an was revealed. The message was given accordingly.
“Remember when you sought help from your Lord. Then Allah answered you,’ I will help you by sending a thousand angels in quick succession.”
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Then Prophetﷺ felt sleepiness. His head drooped as in sleeping. Then woke up. The Prophetﷺ said, “Rejoice, Abu Bakar, Allah’s help has come.”
The Prophetﷺ imparted the lesson that even if we do all the actions related to causes, Allah’s decree and generosity are the basis. When keeping the followers in line and keeping them ready for fighting, the ultimate shelter is in the bounty of Allah, that is why the Prophetﷺ was constantly engaged in prayer.
Then came forward Aswad al-Makhzoomi, the bitter enemy of Islam. He was monstrous and gigantic in form and character. He who took the oath said, “I will drink water from the Haul or pool of Muhammadﷺ. Or I will destroy it. Otherwise I will die for it.”
It is necessary to confront him. A strong man is needed to face him. Hamza(R) came forward without hesitation. He faced Aswad. Hamza(R) thrust his sword at his ankle. His leg was cut and fell on his knee. Blood was pouring out from the wound. But he did not stop. He crawled on his other leg and moved towards the water tank. Cracked a part of it with that foot and drank some water. By that time, Hamza(R) killed him pushing into the pool itself.
Earlier we read that the Prophetﷺ said that a group of people who came to fetch water from the same pool, should not be stopped. Now we have some lessons to learn when we combine these readings . The first group came to fetch water for their basic needs. There humanity was considered beyond enmity. Now Aswad has come to invade with pride. Silence here will be suicidal. It will make enemies more arrogant. Can’t allow it. That is when defense became necessary. Hamza(R) performed that task.
In a sense, the battle has already begun. But there are certain methods of starting a battle face-to-face. According to the Arab style, it begins with a duel. Either two soldiers facing each other or two cavalry facing each other.
According to it, Utbatu bin Rabi’ah from the Quraish side: came forward and challenged for a duel. He came forward from between his brother Shaiba and his son Waleed.
Utba was the one who wished, to retreat from the war and return to Mecca. But he is the one who raised the challenge here. Utba himself must have come forward to convince others that cowardice was not the reason for withdrawing from the war. He came forward with a helmet and binding his head with a blanket also.
Three Ansari youths came forward to meet the challenge of the Quraish. Abdullah ibn Rawaha, Awf and Muawwidu, sons of Haris were the three. There is also an opinion that all three, including Muawvid’s brother Mu’ad, were the sons of Haris.
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Utba asked the Ansars who came to the arena. Who are you? We are the Ansars! We don’t want you!
Then someone called out. O Muhammadﷺ, send here those who able to fight with us. Immediately the Prophetﷺ called the Ansars back. Hey Ubaida… Hamza… Ali. You step forward… and immediately the question arises from the enemy side. Who are they? Hamza… Hamza, then Ubaida… Ubaida, Ali… Ali. No problem, good opponents..
According to another report Utba said. Introduce who you are. Hamza immediately said. ‘I am the lion of Allah and His Messengerﷺ. ‘I am the servant of Allah, the brother of Allah’s messenger’. Introduced Ali(R). ‘I am a member of the allies’. Introduced Ubaida(R).
Hamza confronted Shaiba. It was not too late. The opponent was defeated. Ali fought with Waleed and that too ended. Waleed was killed. Ubaida and Utba fought fiercely. Ubaida was the older of the group. About fifty-three years of age. But did not yield before Utba. He stood bravely fighting . Finally Ubaida got a severe cut on his leg and the marrow came out. Immediately, Ali and Hamza confronted Utba. Utba was defeated. The first three of the Quraish to engage in a duel were killed.
The injured Ubaida was supported by his friends and brought to the tent. He put his face on the holy feet of the Prophetﷺ and asked. ‘Am I not among the martyrs?. The Prophetﷺ said, “I assure you that you are one among them”. Then he recited like this making the Prophet’sﷺ feet as a pillow.
“Forget the wife and children We will save you with our lives.”
He then said that if Abu Talib, who sang this, had seen this scene, he would have really understood that I performed ‘it’.
Ubaida(R)passed away at Swafrau on their way back after the war. He was laid to rest there . Usasa’s daughter, Hind wrote a dirge in memory of the great man,. It begins like this.
“In Swafrau! reached pride and glory
Reason, Leadership, Goodness and Virtues” Ali said, “I will be the first to kneel before Allah on the last day to settle the dispute. This verse was revealed about us. Then he recited the nineteenth verse of the twenty-second chapter of the Holy Qur’an, al-Hajj.” The idea is as follows. “These two groups are two opposing parties. They have become opponents in the matter of their Lord. But as for those who disbelieve, their garments will be cut off by fire, and boiling water will be poured over their heads.” The parties to this verse are one group consisting of Hamza, Ali and Ubaida (R)and the opposite group consisting of Utba, Shaiba and Waleed.
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The Prophetﷺ again lined up the followers and instilled fighting spirit in them. The victory in the duel excited the followers. The Prophetﷺ again repeated the instructions. Do not shoot from distance. Archery is allowed only if the arrow reaches the target. Should not waste arrows. The sword must be taken only when surrounded by the enemies. The Prophetﷺ returned to the hut once again rousing their fighting spirit.
Khaffaf bin Eemau narrated the scene where he saw the followers of the Prophetﷺ standing without swords at Badr. One stands as a shield to the other. They keep moving strings of their bow. But the opponents came with drawn swords. I was surprised by this scene. I inquired from one of the Muhajirs. He said, “The Messenger of Allah has instructed us not to unsheath the sword until the enemy surrounds us.”
The deaths of Utba, Shaiba and Waleed worried the Quraish. They thought of ways of relief. Finally they told the Muslims. ‘We have Latha and Uzza. Don’t you have Latha or Uzza?’ Then the Muslim said, ‘Allah is our savior. You have no savior! Those killed from among us will be in heaven, and those killed from among you will be in hell.’
The Prophetﷺ was engrossed in prayer in the hut. Abu Bakar(R) was also with the Prophetﷺ. The prayer of the Prophetﷺ was that, O Allah, fulfill what you promised quickly. It was not too late. The Prophetﷺ received the news of angels appearing from the sky. Gibreel(A) came holding the bridle of the horse. There was dust between the front teeth of the horse.
In a narration of Ibn Abbas(R) we can see that on the day of Badr.. the Prophetﷺ said. Behold, Gibreel is holding the head of a horse, and upon it are weapons.
With the presence of the angels, the Muslim side became more energetic. Concern and grievance spread on the enemy side. In their eyes, the power of the Muslim side was increased. Ibleez was also on the side of the polytheists in the form of Suraqat, a native of Kinana.
When Iblis was holding the hand of Abu Jahl’s brother Haris Bin Hisham, was the coming of Gibreel (A) to warfront. Immediately he and his followers retreated. Then Harris asked. No Suraqa! Didn’t you say that you are our partner? Why are you running back now? Then he said. We are a different group. Not your group. I see many things that you don’t. I am afraid of Allah, the guardian of the world. His punishment is severe. He called out. For God’s sake! Harris hugs him saying I don’t see anything but bats in Yasrib. Ibleez punched Haris on his chest. With that, Harris fell to the ground.
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After that, iblees fled to a distant place. Some thoughts dawned on him about his own existence. He had asked Allah to extend his life until the Last Day, but he received an answer from Allah that it was until a certain time. He was afraid that that time was near. He became nervous that if the time had come when it was said that’ the guilty would be sad on the day they would face the angels’. The Quraish were in a state of dismay. Suraqa, who had infused them strength, had left them at the lurch. They did not know that the devil was standing in the form of Suraqa. A group also fled with him.
Some Quraish who reached Mecca in between met the real Suraqa there. They asked, ‘Suraqa !. You escaped and led our group to failure, didn’t you? Suraqa said. By Allah! I did not come to the war and I did not know anything about your affairs.But they did not accept it. Later, it was through the statement of the Qur’an that they came to know about participation of iblees with them. Many, including Haris, who were with them at Badr, later accepted Islam.
But as soon as the devil in the guise of Suraqah and his group left the scene, Abu Jahl delivered a speech. It was to keep them in the face of battle and to inspire them. The gist of the speech can be read as follows. Let’s read.”Don’t be fooled by Suraqa’s deception. He was in agreement with Muhammadﷺ and his followers. If we return to Mecca, we know what to do with him and his companions. Do not be deceived by the killing of Utba, Shaiba and Waleed. It was because they were in a hurry. A little pride also caught them. By God, We will not return without catching the Muslims. Do not kill any of them. Rather, capture them alive. We will show them what they have done to avoid their religion and reject the idols of their ancestors.”
At this time, the Muslim side is standing at the height of hope. The Prophetﷺ came out of the tent after reciting the fifty-fourth chapter of Al-Qamar, the forty-fifth verse of the Holy Qur’an. The meaning of the verse is this: “But that group will be defeated. And they will turn back.”
The war was raging. The two armies entered into a fierce battle. Then Naufal bin Quwailid called out and said. “O Quraish! This is a day of pride and exaltation. O Quraish! Do you realize that Suraqa and his team have left you? Therefore every step must be with utmost care. The opponents must be faced without mistaking the aim. I assure you that the children of Rabee’a showed some haste in the duel.”
When the Prophetﷺ heard this voice, he prayed. Oh Allah! Take possession of this Naufal for us! When he inquired after the battle, he received the news that Noufal had been killed by Ali(R). Immediately the Prophetﷺ said, ‘I praise Allah who has accepted my prayer regarding him.’
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A fierce battle began. In the meantime, the Prophetﷺ called Ali and said, ‘Get me a handful of gravel from the ground.’ Ali gave some dust and gravel. ‘Let the faces be sad’. The Prophetﷺ threw a handful of dust to the enemy side praying that, Oh Allah put fear in their hearts and trembling in their feet! Then urged his followers to strengthen the fight.
He had to defend himself in a battle ground inevitably. He had to fight the enemies when they did not allow to live in Mecca, and even after leaving Mecca calmly and reaching Madeena. Even when facing a group with more than three times military strength and many fold rich with weapons, It is by his prayer that they retreat and the war ends quickly. The soil thrown by the Prophetﷺ reached the eyes of all the enemies. They retreated as if blinded. The Muslims did not leave them. They were pursued and some were killed and others were taken prisoners.
Hakeem bin Hizam, became a Muslim after Badr.. He was once asked about the day of Badr. He did not want to say anything specifically because of his old age. When he was compelled to talk, he told like this. ‘We came face to face fighting. Just then, a sound was heard from the sky like pebbles falling in to a bowl. The Prophetﷺ took a handful of earth and threw it towards us. Thus we were defeated. Noufal bin Muawiyathu Dauli said that when we heard such a sound, in our hearts and in our rear, we turned away in fear.
The incident of the Prophetﷺ throwing dust is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an, Chapter Eight, Al-Anfal, Verse 17, “Indeed, it was Allah who killed them, not you. When they were thrown, it was Allah who threw them, not you. This is for Allah to test the believers with a great test. Allah is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.”
This incident occurred miraculously as a Muajizat of the Prophetﷺ. When a handful of earth was thrown at an army, it fell on all of them. They retreated.
Even when we consider the material reasons and ways, In reality, Allah is the only One Who executes everything with sovereignty. Therefore, always thinking about Him, is essential. This concept is also present in the military campaign of the beloved Prophetﷺ.
The Qur’an introduces the throwing of the Prophetﷺ as of Allah. We should be able to understand the spirit of such metaphorical expressions. A gift can be attributed to the donor who apparently handed it over and to the Almighty Allah Who actually provided it. We must recognize that both are in different senses. After years of marriage, the couple did not have any children. A doctor was consulted. He prescribed some medicines and after using them the child was born. The couple once said. Thank God for giving us a baby after so many years. When they introduced the doctor, they said, “It is that doctor who gave us this baby.” Another time they introduced that medicine and said that this medicine gave wings to our dream and blessed us with this baby. All three answers are correct. The first is the ultimate fact. The second and third are expressions that are related to reasons. There is no mistake, associating with Allah, or inaccuracy in it. The problem is when reading the religion and the Qur’an only from the letters.
Let us return to Badr battlefield.
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Following the instructions of the Prophetﷺ, the followers enthusiastically stationed themselves in the battle field, to be killed in the way of Allah, thereby attaining the endless blessings of Paradise. Isn’t it, ‘to be killed’ in the way of Allah, a barrier to the enter heaven? Why should I wait longer by the side of the battlefield? Many of the companions thought that they did not want to delay any moment. They even ignored the drinks they had prepared for them. Take a look at the energy imparted by the 133rd verse of the Holy Qur’an of chapter 3 ,”Aalu Imran. “Come forth swiftly to obtain forgiveness from the Sustainer and a paradise as wide as the heavens and the earth. It is prepared for the pious.” Hearing this, they thought that it would be a long time to wait for this to be completed. Umairubin Al Humam did not delay. He sang like this.
“Raqlan Ilallahi Bi Ghairi Zaadi…
…………………. …………………. …… ………
…………….. …………………. ……….. ……..
Ghairi tuqa wal birri varrashadi.
“I went without thinking about anything
Surrendered to Allah in every way.
Hereafter with deed and devotion
I endured in the land of battle
All assets will be of no use
Except piety, goodness and Good fearing.”
Look at a bright picture of experiencing heaven from the battlefield. The Holy Prophetﷺ looked at the face of Harizat bin Suraqa and asked. What is your condition now? Indeed, I am a firm believer in Allah. Do you know the true meaning of what you say? Each has an ultimate meaning. What is the essence of your faith? The Prophetﷺ asked again.
Then Haritha said, “Messenger of Allah! I renounced this material world. Sleepless nights and days of fasting. I looked at the Throne of Allah and the mutual visits of the people of Paradise and the cries of the people of Hell.. “OK! You have seen. You are the person in whom Allah has lightened faith in the heart,” replied the Prophetﷺ. Immediately, Haritha pleaded. You pray for me to be martyred. The Prophetﷺ agreed.
Haritha was the first to be killed at Badr from the Ansars . He was killed by an enemy’s arrow while he was drinking the water . After the war, Haritha’s mother asked the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ who came to Madeena.Oh messenger of Allah ! You know that my son is the piece of my heart. When I wanted to cry for him , I thought I could do it after asking you. If he is in heaven, I will not be sad . I will forbear because of the reward from Allah. How can I not cry if he is the heir of hell. What can I do without crying? I will cry as long as I live.”
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