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Drinks were brought to give to the Prophet ﷺ. There were wine, milk and honey in different vessels.The Prophet ﷺ accepted the milk bowl and drank it. Immediately Gibreel(A) said. You have chosen “Fitrat” or ‘purity’. Your community has also built its foundation on the said Fitrat.
Again he continued his journey and came near the tree called ‘Sidratul Muntaha’. It is the boundary of certain stage of the upper world. From under the Sidra tree springs forth streams . Streams flowing with clear water and pure honey, and wine which gives happiness to the drinkers. The shade of the Sidra is wide. A calm and quiet way which does not end if one travels seventy years continuously . Broad leaves. Unimaginable beauty. Twigs full of golden birds like that…..
In an explanation given by Ibn Masu’ood (R), it can also be read like this. There the Prophetﷺ saw Gibreel(A) with six hundred wings. Each is wide enough to encompass the spheres . Precious gems are being scattered from those wings.
Then he entered heaven. Blessings that have not been seen, heard or imagined. There is written on it’s gates. Tenfold reward for donation . Eighteen times reward for lending. The Prophet ﷺ asked Gibreel(A). Why it is more glory to the ‘lending’ than the ‘donation’. Gibreel (A)explained. Even ‘those who have’ may sometimes come begging. But only a needy person would take a loan.
Then there was a nurse. I asked. Whose maid servant are you? she said. Belongs to Zaidu bin Haritha (R).
Domes made of red corals. The Prophet ﷺ said to Gibreel(A). They ask me about heaven. Gibreel(A) said that the soil of heaven will be musk. Then heard a whisper from heaven. The Prophet ﷺ asked. It is the presence of Bilal(R) . Gibreel(A) replied.
Then saw many blessings of heaven. Streams, rivulets , and noises. Finally happy to see the unique ‘Al Kausar’.
The journey went ahead. There is the abode of Allah’s wrath. A place of punishment. If a stone or iron is thrown at it, the fire will consume it. The Prophet ﷺ saw different forms of punishments in Hell. The Prophet ﷺ saw the angel of hell and greeted him. Then the gates of hell were closed.
The journey and sights of the Prophet ﷺ in a short period of one night can be read like this from different narrations.
Let’s continue to get acquainted with some special things that can only be read with spiritual visions.
It can be read as follows in a statement that Gibreel (A.) says. ‘Subbuhun Quddusun Rabbul Malaikati War Ruh’. My anger has been overcome by My mercy. At that, Gibreel(A) drew back a little.
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Then Gibreel(A) took the Prophetﷺ with him and reached the place where he could hear the movements of the, “Qalam” which is a special system of Allah. He saw a person hidden in the aura of the Throne. Who is he? Prophet? Or is it an angel?. No. Then who?.He is the person who kept his tongue moist with constant ‘Dikr’, whose heart was always attached to the masjid, the House of Allah.
Then the Prophet ﷺ saw Allah directly. The Prophetﷺ prostrated. Allah conversed with the Prophetﷺ greeted Allah. O Allah, did you not make Prophet Ibraheem(A)’Khaleel’ or soulmate! Was not given special authority! Did not address the prophet Moosa(A) as “Kaleem” or specifically converse with him! Did not give prophet Dawood(A) superior authority to subjugate the human, demons, the winds, etc.? Didn’t give Prophet Easa(A) Tora , Injil, and healing power !. Was he not given permission to raise the dead and special protection from the devil, for him and his mother?
Then Allah the Exalted said. I have chosen you as ‘Habeeb’ or best friend. You have been appointed as a glad tiding and a warning to the entire human race. I have widened your heart and sanctified from all unbecomings and elevated your reputation. Made your community an ideal and medium nation. Though last in mission, but first in status. Among their people there will be those whose hearts are the scriptures or who have memorized the holy Qur’an. We have made you the first creation and the consummation of the messenger’s mission. We have revealed to you seven verses or Fatiha, which contain special glories that no previous prophet has given. The last verses of Surat al-Baqarah, the treasure from the foundation of ‘the Throne’. We have specially given you ‘the Kausar water’ and many blessings. Islam, Hijrah, Jihad, Ramadan Fasting, Charity, Moral advice etc. Eight great portions have been given to you. At the time of the creation of the heavens and the earth, We have ordained fifty prayers for you and the people. Therefore, you and the community should perform it.
After the conversation between Allah and the Prophetﷺ, the cloud around the Prophetﷺ cleared. From there he prepared to travel back. Gibreel(A) took his hand. Ibraheem(A)came to the Prophetﷺ. Prophet Moosa (A)came near and asked him. What happened. What did Allah make compulsory for you and your community? The Prophetﷺ said. He made fifty prayers daily for me and my community. Prophet Moosa(A) intervened. He said the Prophetﷺ that he should ask Allah for relief from it. Your people will not be able to perform fifty prayers daily. I have experience in taking care of a nation before you. I have tested the Israelites with lighter things than this, but they have not succeeded. Your people are weak, so it will be difficult for them anyway. The Prophetﷺ consulted Gibreel(A). Gibreel(A) agreed that it would be so and returned to the previous place.
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Again came to the Sidra tree. It was cloudy again. The Prophetﷺ prostrated and asked Allah. O Allah, ease the worship that You have made obligatory. My community is the weakest of the communities. So the five daily prayers were lightened. The cloud cleared. He went back to Prophet Moosa(A) and detailed. Then Prophet Moosa(A) said. Your people can’t do that much. Try to ask for lighten. Thus, in response to the request of the Prophet Moosa(A), the Prophetﷺ asked Allah for relief nine times. At the end, he kept the five times. Then Allah said. These five times should be performed in the each day and night. For these five times, the reward has been fixed tenfold. Though five in number, it will be the same as fifty in reward and value. There is no reduction in this. If one intended to do a good and done it, he would be rewarded tenfold. He will get one reward even if he could not do it. There is a reward for that purpose. But if one intends an evil and does it, there is only one punishment. If one does not do it after intending it, there is no punishment.
He came to Prophet Moosa(A) again asked for information. He still said. Try to ask for some more relief. Your community may not be able to complete this much. Then the Prophetﷺ said, I have asked Allah for relief so many times. Now I am ashamed. I am satisfied with this and accept it. Then a sound is heard: “I have determined the worship that I have made obligatory on my slaves. And I have given relief”. Prophet Moosa(A)said. Descend in the name of Allah. He began to descend from the upper world. Each group of angels met on the way said to the Prophetﷺ: ‘You should tell your community to receive cupping therapy’.
During the descent, Gibreel(A)said to the Prophet ﷺ: Everyone I met in the upper world welcomed me and laughed to me. But only one person greeted us but did not laugh. That is the angel Malik(A) who is the custodian of the hell. Until now, that angel has not laughed. If he would have laughed to anyone, he would have laughed to you.
On the way back he saw the places of discourse where the devils gather and turn people away from right way.
Then he returned to Baitul Muqadas. He got into the vehicle and returned to Mecca with Gibreel(A). On the way, he saw a group of Quraish merchants. One of their camels had two black and white sacks on it. When the journey of the Prophetﷺ reached on top of the caravan of the Quraish, one of the camels in the group, went astray. One person was seen bringing the missing camel. The Prophet ﷺ greeted the caravanA. At that time, some of them were saying, “This is the voice of Muhammad ﷺ!”.
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The Prophet ﷺ returned to Mecca before dawn. There is no possibility that the polytheists would believe or accept this news. The Prophet ﷺ was thinking about it. when Abu Jahl came in and mockingly asked the Prophet ﷺ. Is there anything in particular? The Prophet ﷺ said. Yes. What? Yesterday I took a night trip. To where?. ‘To Baitul Muqaddas’. Okay, then back here before dawn? ‘Yes’. Abu Jahl could not believe it. He asked again. Do you intend to tell people about this? The Prophet ﷺ said. Yes, I will tell people. Immediately, Abu Jahl called out loudly. Come, come, sons of Ka’b bin Luai. A group gathered there. Immediately, Abu Jahl said. Tell them what you told me earlier. The Prophetﷺ began to say. I was transported last night. They asked .To where? To Baitul Muqaddas. And then by the time of the morning you came back to us? Yes. They were surprised to hear it. Some clapped their hands and some put their hands on their heads. But the Prophet ﷺ did not feel any hesitation in telling this great event . But the Quraish were amazed. Mutimu Binu Adiyy said, Oh Muhammad ﷺ we could have believed a lot of what you had said up to now.” But this is too tough to believe ? By Latta and Uzza I will not believe this . I bear witness that this statement is false, because it will take one month to reach Baitul Mugadas if we ride horse .But you argue that visited there and came back in a very short of time in the night . How can you believe?
Immediately Abu Bakar (R) told Mut’Im. It was not right from your part to react that way to your nephew. I agree with what Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said. He is honest and trustworthy. I agree that what has just been said, is true. Then those who gathered there asked the Prophet ﷺ. But give an explanation about Baitul Muqadas. How was it built ? In what way are the doors etc? They know that the Prophet ﷺ had not gone there before. Similarly, there where those who had gone there many times were in Mecca . The Prophet ﷺ began to describe in detail: Doors in each direction and distance from the nearest mountain…. Abu Bakar (R) agreed each and every points. He said: ‘Sadaqta..Sadaqta’..(You have spoken the truth…you have spoken the truth..) I bear witness that he is the Messenger of Allah. The people said together. Anyway, the description is correct.
And yet the people asked Abu Bakar (R.) Do you believe that Prophet Muhammad ﷺ went to Baitul Muqaddas in one night and returned here before dawn? Siddeeq (R.) said. I have no doubt. Isn’t it a bigger thing than this to receive divine revelation from the upper world? If you can believe that, then why don’t you believe this? He responded with precise reasons. It is based on this firm conviction that since then, the name ‘Sideeque’ has become famous.
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Again they asked the Prophetﷺ questions. They enquired the Prophetﷺ whether he had seen the Quraish caravan which was coming from Syria to Mecca. When they will reach there. The Prophetﷺ said. I saw yesterday a man’s camel at Rauhau. Then I went to their camp. There was no one in the tent. They had gone to bring the stray camel. I drank water from their water bowl. Then I saw his camel and two black and white sacks on the camel. He had reached Tan’eem last night. “Tan’eem” is the border area of the Haram, seven kilometers away from Mecca. He must have reached “Saniyat” by now. Saniyat is the place through where travelers enter Mecca . They asked the Prophetﷺ. When he will reach. He said. May arrive on Wednesday. They waited until Wednesday. It was evening. They did not see the group. They asked the Prophetﷺ as the caravan didn’t reach. Here comes the caravan. They asked the caravan.. They verified about the missing camel and the water pot. But they did not have the luck to the true path. They put it aside saying that it was sorcery .
We have read a narration of Prophet Muhammadﷺ’s night journey and ascension. But we have to read some basic discussions related to this.
One. The question is whether these journeys were physical. Yes, they were physical and not merely spiritual journeys or dream visions. The holy Qur’an mentioned that ‘Asra bi Abdihi’ Allah made his ‘Abd’ travel by night. The word “Abd” is not applied only to the soul, but it is applied to the state of the soul and the body together. Therefore, it is clear from the usage of the holy Qur’an that this journey was physical. Also, the reason for the people of Mecca to disbelieve and criticize. There was no reason for them to criticize if he said that, ‘I saw the Baitul Muqaddas in a dream or I had a spiritual vision’.
There are those who have tried to present “Israu” scientifically by presenting the possibilities of hypnotic sleep. But that too is only a mental experience . It is not the same as Israu. Perhaps if a man can travel a distance of months with in split seconds by arranging the cosmic laws and regulations in a special way, it will not be the same as Israu. But if this is possible for the science created by the Lord of the universe, then such observations can lead to the thought that, He can give more to his obedient servant.
Here our stance is clear. The Prophetﷺ introduced the night journey to those who lived there at that time. At first they denied, then they raised questions. All the questions were answered clearly. They had to agree that the answers given were correct. At the end they denied raising trivial accusations. All these debates are recorded like other historical events. An unbiased observation would bring anyone to these ideas.
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Two. Whether the Prophet ﷺ saw Allah or not. The scholarly discussion is that the Prophet ﷺ saw Allah. There have been innovators or heretics in the Islamic world who argue that it is not possible to see Allah even in the Hereafter. But twenty-one companions of the Prophet ﷺ have quoted statements describing that seeing Allah is possible. Moreover, the holy Qur’an itself directly says that Allah can be seen.
Scholarly debates on whether the Prophet ﷺ saw Allah in the night of Isra’u, come to two viewpoints. One of them is the discussion raised by Ayisha (R). She says that the Prophet ﷺ did not see Allah that night. Abu Huraira, Ibn Masood (R) are also of this opinion. Hafil Uthman even said that there is ‘Ijma’u on this matter, when he quoted from Saeed Darimi. But Hasan swore by Allah and said that the Prophet ﷺ saw Allah in the night of Isra’u. Imam Abdur Razzaq reported this. Imam Ibn Khuzaima(R) also narrated this opinion from Urwat bin Zubair (R). Not only that, but all the disciples of Abdullahi Bin Abbas (RA), the leader of the Qur’an commentators, are of this opinion. This opinion was also expressed by Ka’abul Ahbar and Ma’avar Zuhri(R)and others. Imam Abulhasan al-Ash’ari(R) and most of the scholars presented this view.
Then came the discussion of seeing with the eyes or with the heart. Imam Nawawi(R) said like this. ‘The dominant view of the majority of scholars is, that the Prophet ﷺ saw Allah, the almighty with his own eyes on the night of Mi’raj. In a hadeeth narrated by Imam Tabrani(R) through an acceptable chain of narrators , Ibn Abbas (R) says. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ saw Allah twice, once with his heart and once with his eyes.
There are many scholars who have discussed all the statements related to this matter without emphasizing whether the Prophet ﷺ saw or not. In response to the question of whether the Prophetﷺ saw Allah There are those who have interpreted in different ways the usage of the hadeeth, ‘he saw Allah and saw the light’, quoted by Imam Ahmad(R) and others. But he saw Allah himself. Another observation is that as an expression that we can understand , ‘Allah’s light’ or light is used.
Umar al-Qazi (R), who evaluated all these discussions and wrote a special treatise on Islamic faith, recorded that ‘wa raahu ainan wa fuadan – he saw Allah with his eyes and heart. Umarul Qazi(R) has made such an application by determining the idea of the eleventh verse of ‘Sura Alnnajm’, which gives the idea that the heart has not denied what the eyes have seen.
No matter what part is read, seeing Allah does not mean that two bodies meet. Allah has no attributes of creations. He is beyond the questions of how and where. Space is beyond time. Space and time are only His creations. Space and time only came into being when Allah created them and Allah is without beginning.
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The Quraish were not convinced of the lessons in ‘Mi’raj’. Some of the people who stood with the Prophet Muhammadﷺ also could not understand. The Quraish took advantage of this situation and resorted to all sorts of violence. The reaction of the tribes like Saqeef, Kinda, Kalb, Aamir and Hanifa, who were approached by the Prophetﷺ hoping to accept the true faith, was not good. The Quraish also made disturbances in the possibilities of approaching and preaching to the surrounding countrymen who came to Mecca for pilgrimage. At last some, who were attracted to the ideas shared by the Prophetﷺ, hesitated to declare Islam publicly for the sole reason that they would be isolated in society.
At that time, Suwayd bin Al Swamit, who was a prominent person in Yathrib(later Madeena), came to Mecca. People called him ‘Al Kamil’ because he was noble, excellent and a poet. He came to Mecca to perform Hajj. Prophet Muhammadﷺ talked to him. Invited to Islam. Then he asked. What I have and what you have are not the same? The Prophetﷺ asked what do you have? He said. ‘Luqman’s philosophy or ‘Hikmatu Luqman’. can you show me ? Suwayd showed it. Then the Prophetﷺ said. This is good. But what I have is better than this. It is the Holy Qur’an which is the light and guidance. It was revealed to me by Allah. Then he recited a small part of the Qur’an. Suwaid listened carefully. Then he said, “This is good”. He returned ruminating over the verses which he had heard.Historians say that later he was killed by the Khazraj tribe and he was a true believer then.
The main tribes of Yathrib, Aus and Khazraj, were in constant conflict and fighting. It was the Jews who were instigating them. Often, Aus and Khazraj would approach the Arabs of Mecca for support. Thus, a group of young people from the tribe of Abd al-Ashhal of Aus came to Mecca. Iyas bin Mu’ad was also present in that group. The Prophetﷺ approached them. Islam was introduced. The holy Qur’an was recited. Iyas said to his friends after hearing and evaluating things. How much better things have we heard than you have sought. Iyas urged his friends. But Abu’l-Haizer, who led the group of Iyas, and his companions prepared war gear and returned to Yatrib.
A war broke out between Aus and Khazraj, which led to the Battle of Buaz. The Battle of Buaz turned out to be a fierce battle. Each party tried to completely eliminate the other party, and the Aus tribe failed in the first stage. They retreated towards Najd. With that, the Khazrajs became more violent. Abu Uzaid, who had an insatiable grudge against Khazraj, could not bear this. He stuck a spear in his own thigh. He stood still. Damn you.. Damn you.. If you kill me and leave, then go… If you give me to the enemy, then… Hearing this, the people of Aus tribe came back. They unleashed maximum power and hatred and defeated Khazraj miserably and started setting fire to their houses and establishments.
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Date palm plantations were set on fire. Finally Sa’ad bin Mu’ad, an Ashali tribe member, intervened and stopped the burning. Abu Qays bin Aslat stopped Abu Uzaid’s intention to destroy Khazraj completely. He asked, “Why should you two, who have the same ideals, fight to bring the foxes closer?” That’s when Abu Qays realized the trickery of the Jews making the two sides fight each other and drinking blood like foxes. By then many lives and much property had been lost. Usayd and his companions became aware of the status, the Jews had gained.
Aus and Khazraj tribes realized their losses and were saddened.They decided to appoint a king to lead them. Thus Abdullah bin Muhammad of the Khazraj tribe was appointed king. But that plan did not succeed.
Then the time of Hajj came. A few people from the Khazraj tribe came to Mecca and met the Prophet ﷺ and had a conversation. The Prophet ﷺ understood firsthand the disputes between Aus and the Khazraj and the actions of the Jews who were taking advantage of it. Every time they meet the Arabs, the Jews would say that ‘the last prophet is near to be appointed . That if that prophet comes, we will join together and overcome you’. The Khazraj were surprised that the same Prophetﷺ, met them first and invited them to the group. In any case, they thought that we should follow the Prophetﷺbefore the Jews do. They accepted the invitation of the Prophet ﷺ and accepted Islam. Immediately they said to the beloved Prophet ﷺ. The most rival tribes in the world are Aus and Khazraj tribes. If you unite them, there will be no one more glorious than you. May Allah bring harmony through you . Two representatives of the Banu Najjar family, relatives of the Prophet’s uncle, were with the Khazraj.
The Khazraj who came from Mecca to Madeena announced Islam. They shared their happiness about the future of unity. The Aus tribe also did not object. Thus, discussions about the Prophet ﷺ arose in every house in Madeena.
Abu Umama Asad Bin Zurarah, Auf Bin Al Harith, Ibn Amir Bin Suraikh, Ibn Amir Bin Hadeeda, Banu Haram Bin Ka’b, Banu Ubaid Bin Adiyy were in the group.
This meeting was held in Aqaba, near Mina. Some historians record this dialogue as the first Aqaba Treaty. There are some historians who counted the following treaties as the first and second. According to the first opinion there are three treaties and two according to the second opinion. This is the valley that includes Jamra. It is known as Jamrat al-Aqaba on this basis. The Masjid which situated here is known as “Masjidul Bay’ah”.
The Islamic teaching that started in Mecca is gently reaching Yatrib, when it is faced with crises. We can understand that Islam first entered the nerves of Madeena.
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Next year the holy months and the Hajj period came in. Twelve people came to Mecca from Yathrib and met the Prophetﷺ at Aqaba. They made a covenant with the Prophetﷺ as women make covenant. When making a covenant with men, the position during the war is also included in the covenant. But at this time war was not law.
As’ad Bin Zurarah, Daqwan Bin Abd Qays, Ubadat Bin Swamit, Abbas Bin Ubadat Bin Nal’la:, Khutbat Bin Amir Bin Hadida:, Uqbat Bin Aamir, Auf Bin Al Harith, Rifaa:, Uwaymi Bin Saeedah:, Malik Bin Attaihan, Muawwid bin Alharis and Yazeed bin Saalaba were in the said group. This is what Ubadat bin Samit (R) says about the content of the covenant: we will not associate anyone with Allah , no committing adultery, no stealing, no killing children, no accusing anyone. Will not sin knowingly. Will not fail in what we do. We made an agreement with the Prophetﷺ about such things. The Prophetﷺ said. If you follow all these things, Allah will reward you. His heaven will be opened for you . And those who fail to keep this covenant, Allah will punish him or He may forgive.
When they parted after the treaty, Mis’ab bin Umair (R) was sent along with them to teach them the holy Qur’an and Islam. He was known as Qari’u or Muqri’u, which means the person who recites the Qur’an. It was As’ad bin Zurarah who hosted Mis’ab(R) in Madeena.
Both of them became bosom friends. Together they undertook the mission of Islamic propagation. Day by day people started to know and accept Islam. Meanwhile, one day As’ad went out with Mis’ab (R) aiming to meet Sa’ad bin Muad and Usaid bin Hulair, the chiefs of Yathrib. A few Muslims also joined. Sa’ad belonged to the family of Imrul Qays and was the son of Asad’s aunt. As’ad (R) wanted to talk to both of them, who were prominent leaders of the polytheists and leaders of Yathrib. By then Sa’ad told Usaid. There are two people who are coming with new idea and they are exploiting the poor people. As As’ad is my family member, it is difficult for me to stop them. You tell them to go. Usaid got up with his weapon and faced As’ad and Mis’ab.By then Asad said to Mis’ab. He is the leader of the people here. Trust Allah about him…. Misab said if I get a chance, I will talk and make matter clear to him. By then Usaid scolded. You two are targetting the poor people here. Didn’t come to exploit? If you have any plan here, avoid us and take your way . Soon Mis’ab(R) said. Listen to what we have to say. If what you hear is agreeable, then accept or defend yourself. Isn’t that right? Uzaid said. That is fair. He put his spear there. He began to listen Mis’ab(R).
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Mis’ab(R) started talking. A primary introduction about Islam was presented . Then recited a small part from the holy Qur’an. Immediately the face of the listener began to change. A special expression appeared . He said. What beautiful words !. What a beautiful recitation. What should I do to join this ideal? Come after cleaning your body and clothes. Then accept the truth, declare it and pray. After hearing this, Usaid got up. Purifying his body, he came dressed in beautiful clothes and announced his acceptance of Islam . He prayed two rak’ats. Then he said, “There is one more person behind me. If he accepts Islam, no one from his community will oppose you.” Because he is acceptable to the people and their leader. His name is Sa’ad bin Mu’ad. I will send him to you. Usaid took his weapon and went out. He reached near Sa’ad . As soon as he got near, Saad said, “Usaid has come back with a change . There is a change in your face. Sa’ad asked what, Uzaid, what is the matter?.Usaid said. I met both of them. I tried to stop them, but they were not trouble mongers. Then I heard that the Banu Haritha came to kill As’ad bin Zurarah because they knew he was the son of your uncle. Sa’ad immediately got up and took his weapon and left. They came to the two and there were Mis’ab and As’ad sitting calmly. When Sa’ad saw that, he understood that Usaid had told about ‘Banu Hariza’ to bring him before them.
Sa’ad spoke harshly to As’ad. If you were not my family member I would have opposed your entry strongly . As’ad immediately said to Mis’ab. Do you know who this is? He is the leader of the people here. He is a personality without words. Mis’ab immediately said. Listen a little bit to what we have to say. If things are acceptable, accept them. If not, let’s part with good gestures . Sa’ad agreed that it was fair. The spear was put on the ground and ready to listen to Mis’ab . He introduced Islam. Quran verses were recited.
Saad’s expression started to change. Light started to appear on his face . He asked. What is the method of entering into this faith? Said to Sa’ad as it was said to Usaid earlier. Take a bath and put on clean clothes and proclaim the truth. Then pray two rak’ats. Sa’ad took his weapon and returned to his friends.
As soon as they saw Sa’ad, they asked. What a change !. The light of the right path entered his heart. Sa’ad faced his tribe. O Banul Ashhal tribe! What do you think of me? They all said. You are our leader and the highest among us. Immediately Sa’ad declared. If that is the case, I do not like any man or woman among you to even speak to me without believing in Allah and His Messenger. They all embraced Islam. Only one, Amr bin Thabit bin Waqsh, stayed away. Later he embraced Islam on the day of Uhud. Joined the Muslim army. He was killed that very day and became a true believer. The Prophet ﷺ gave the good news that even though he did not get chance to do even one prostration in his life, he is an heir of heaven.
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Sa’ad and Mis’ab came to the house of As’ad bin Zurarah. The Islamic activities in Yathrib were discussed. They became more active. In every house, men and women alike, everyone got to know Islam. Except for Daru Bani Umayyah, all the ansari families embraced Islam. Among them there was a man named Qays bin Aslat named Saifiyy. When the Prophetﷺ migrated and reached Madeena, he embraced Islam.
The news of Yathrib began to reach Mecca . When knew about the enthusiastic acceptance of Islam by the Aus and Khazraj tribes, the Prophetﷺ was pleased with the information of Mis’ab’s activities. For ten years, the Prophetﷺtraveled around the markets and pilgrims centers of Mecca, inviting people to Islam. But to no avail. Now received a favorable response from Yathrib , which he did not receive even after direct invitations. He thought of sending believers to Yathrib and giving them some relief. He also realized that the condition in Yathrib is conducive to strengthen Islamic movements there. The difficulties of believers continuing in Mecca increasing day by day. The Prophetﷺ did not even think of putting up a defense in Mecca, standing up with those who were there. The Prophetﷺ insisted that no fight or bloodshed should take place in Mecca.
At that time, in the year six hundred and twenty-two of Christian Era , a group of seventy-five people from Yathrib came to Mecca as pilgrims. There were seventy-three men and two women in the group. It is said that there were seventy-three people in total. The names can be read as follows.
Eleven from the tribe of Aus
1. Uzaid bin Hulair
2. Abul Haysam Atayihan
3. Salamatubinu Salama:
4. Luhair bin Rafi’ah
5. Abu Bardat bin Niyar
6. Nuhair bin Haysam
7. Saad bin Khaizama:
8. Rifaat bin Abdul Mundir
9. Abdullahibn Jubair
10. Ma’an bin Adiyy
11. Uwaym bin Sa’idah
12. (62 men and 2 women from the tribe of Khazraj) Abu Ayyubil Ansari.
13. Muad bin Al Harith
14. Auf Bin Al Harith
15. Muawwid bin Alharis
16. Umarat bin Hazam
17. Asad bin Zurarah:
18. Sahl bin Ateeq
19. Aus bin Thabit
20. Zayd bin Sahil
21. Qays bin Abi Sa’sa’a
22. Amr bin Ghazya
23. Sa’d bin Rabeeu
24. Kharijat bin Zaid
25. Abdullahi bin Rawaha:
26. Bashir bin Sa’ad
27. Abdullahibn Zaid bin Saalaba:
28. Khallad bin Suwayd
29. Uqbat bin Amr Albadari
30. Ziyad bin Labid.
31. Farwat bin Amr
32. Khalid bin Qays
33. Rafia bin Malik.
34. Daqwan bin Abdukhais.
35. Ubbad bin Qays bin Amir
36. Harith bin Qays bin Amir
37. Bara’u bin Ma’aroor
38. Basheer bin Bara’u bin Ma’roor
39. Sinan bin Saifiyy
40. Tufail bin Nu’aman
41. Ma’aqal bin Al Mundir bin Zarh
42. Yazeed bin Al Mundir bin Zarh
43. Masu’ood bin Zayd bin Sabiyah
44. Lahhak bin Haritha
45. Yazid bin Qassam
46. Jabbar bin Sakhr
47. Tufail bin Malik
48. Ka’b bin Malik
49. Salim bin Amir bin Hudaida.
50. Khutbat bin Amir bin Hudaydah
51. Yazeed bin Amir bin Hudaida
52. Abul Yasr Ka’b bin Amr
53. Saif bin Sawad
54. Salabat bin Ganma
55. Amr bin Ganma
56. Abs bin Amir bin Adiyy
57. Khalid bin Amt
58. Abdullah bin Unais.
59. Amd bin Haram to Abdullahihib
60. Jabir bin Abdullahih ibn Amr bin Haram
61. Muad bin Amr bin Al Jamuh
62. Thabit bin Al Jaza’a
63. Umair bin Al Harith
64. Khadij bin Salama:
65. Mu’ad bin Jabal
66. Ubadat bin Swamit
67. Al-Abbas bin Ubadah:
68. Yazeed bin Saalaba
69. Am bin Al Harith
70. Rifa’at bin Amr
71. Uqbat bin Wahhab
72. Sa’ad bin Ubadah
73. Mundir bin Amr
74. Naseebat Bint Ka’ab (UmmUmara:)
75. Umm Mani’ah Asma’ bint Amr.
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These seventy-five people made an agreement with the Prophetﷺ at Aqaba. Then they asked the Prophetﷺ: On what matters should we make an agreement? He replied: “We will listen and obey in happiness and sadness. We will spend in richness and famine. We will admonish good deeds and forbid bad. The accusation of the accuser will not block us from doing so. If I come to Yathrib, we will protect you as we protect our wife and children”. Make covenant on these said things. You will get Heaven as reward for all this.
Those who came from Yathrib agreed. As’ad bin Zurarah stood up to make the agreement by holding hands. Jabir(R) says As’ad(R) was the youngest of this group after me. Then one by one the agreement was made.
This agreement was in the year six hundred and twenty two. It was agreed that they would meet in Aqaba at midnight on the second day after the Hajj. The believers who came from Yathrib took special care not to let the unbelievers with them know. They sat secretly on top of the mountain waiting for the arrival of the Prophetﷺ. The Prophetﷺ arrived soon, and his paternal uncle, Abbas bin Abdul Mutalib, was also with him. Abbas joined after knowing the news of the formation of an alliance from the Prophetﷺ. He also had the thought that this alliance would lead to a war. If that happens, he thought about the consequences that might happen to Hashim and Mutalib family in general and his nephew in particular. That is why he started the conversation. O Khazraj people, you know the status of the Prophet Muhammadﷺ among us.
However , the Hashim and Mutalib families in Mecca have not completely forsaken the Prophetﷺ yet. The Prophetﷺ wishes to join you now. You only need to go ahead if you are willing to fully abide by the agreement you are making now. If the intention is to hand over the Prophetﷺ to the enemy without fulfilling the agreement, it is better to say it now itself.
After listening to Abbas’ speech completely, the people of Yatrib said, “O Abbas, we heard what you said completely.” O Messenger of Allah, you can choose whatever you and your Lord wills. We are ready for anything. The Prophetﷺ recited some verses from the holy Qur’an. It was for the people of Yathrib to increase their interest in religion and the Prophetﷺ. Then he said once more. I hope you will protect me as you protect your wife and children. They took it wholeheartedly.
Bara’ bin Ma’roor(R) was a Khazraj leader who accepted Islam with the First Treaty of Aqaba. He was willing to follow all the Islamic laws but he was not willing to accept a Qibla other than the holy Ka’aba. The Qibla of the believers at that time was Baitul Muqaddas.
This stance of Bara’u has created differences of opinion in the muslim community.
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Others asked the Prophetﷺ about Bara’s stance. The Prophetﷺ said that now it is towards the Baitul Muqaddas that should be turned or regarded as the Qibla.
Then Bara’a extended his hand to the Prophetﷺ to make covenant. He said, “Messenger of Allah, we are making a contract. We are the offspring of the sword and fighting. We have inherited that honor.” When he said this, Abul Haysam Attaihan intervened. We had entered into some agreements with the Jews. We have weakened all that. After we have done so much, tomorrow when you get acceptance, strength and success, will you forget us and go back to your own native land?.
The Prophetﷺ said with a smile. ‘No never… Your enemies are my enemies. Your blood is mine too. I am yours and you are mine’.
When the Khazraj people were preparing to pledge with great fervor , there was another intervention. Abbas bin Ubadah called out and said, “Do you know to what kind of pledge you are preparing for?” If need be, you will have to face any type of enemy, red and black, armed. Your leaders will be killed and your property will be lost. Then you should not avoid this person. If so, then you should avoid right now. Do you know the importance of Pledge? They said in unison, loss of life, financial loss or leaders being killed, are not problem for us. We will protect this personality. Oh Messenger of Allah! What shall we get in return? He said. ‘You shall have heaven.’
And did not wait for anyone. They all extended their hands. The holy Prophetﷺ accepted them with his hand. They all took oath. When the covenant was completed, the Prophetﷺ said that twelve representatives should be selected from among you. They should be the main responsible for the affairs. Like electing the executive from a general body. Nine from Khazraj and three from the tribe of Aws, twelve were determined.
Then he said to them. You will be responsible for the actions of your community. The Ansars were appointed as ‘disciples'(Hawariyyoon),who were the special disciples of Prophet Easa(A), son of Maryam. The names of the twelve people from the tribe of Aws, recorded in history under the name of “Nuqabau” can be read as follows. 1. Usaid bin Hulair 2. Abul Haisam Attayihan 3. Sa’ad bin Khaizama. From the tribe of Khasraj 4. As’ad Bin Zurara: 5. Rafia Bin Malik 6. Sa’ad bin Ubadah: 7. Mundir bin Amr 8. Bara’a bin Ma’aroor 9. Saad bin Rabeeu 10. Abdullah bin Rawaha: 11. Ubadat bin Swamit 12. Abdullah bin Amr:
In the place of Mundir bin Amr, we can find Malik bin Malik, Ubadat bin Swamit and Kharijat bin Zaid according to some historians.
There was no possibility that anyone except those who contracted this treaty, which took place on a hillside in Mecca in the dead of night, would have known. But when the agreement was completed, there was a yell. “O Quraysh ! . Prophet Muhammadﷺ and his companions are preparing for war.. The spy of the Quraish who happened to see this scene called out to divert the negotiations of the Prophetﷺ by pretending that the Quraish knew about the agreement. But as soon as they heard this word, Aus and Khazraj said in one voice. O Prophet. If you give permission, we can launch a lightning attack on Mina tomorrow itself. The Prophetﷺ said, ‘We have no permission for that. Go to your resting places.
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The Treaty of Aqaba was over. The twelve “Nukhabau” were selected. All these are special decisions from Allah. There is a statement of Imam Malik (R). It was Gibreel(A) pointed out each one of the special representatives to the Prophetﷺ. By morning, the news spread in the Quraish camps. They came to the residence of the Khazraj and made accusations. In the group they also called out and said. ‘Have we not come to fight against you? Then why did you form an alliance with Muhammadﷺ against us.” Then the polytheists of Khazraj said, “We have not made a treaty with anyone? They did not know the movements of the Muslims at all. They spoke in total denial of the treaty. The Muslims kept silence. The Quraish parted for the time being. Their subsequent investigation confirmed that the agreement had been signed. But by that time those who had come from Yathrib had started their return journey. The Quraish followed them. They only caught Sa’ad bin Ubadah. They brought him to Mecca and beat him brutally. Finally, Jubair bin Mut’im and Harith bin Umayya rescued him with bail. It was in return for Sa’ad bin Ubadah’s assistance when the two reached Yathrib on their trade journey to Sham.
Quraish had different ideas about the agreement. They realized that they could not divert the Prophetﷺ or the Muslims from the ideals or the ideal propaganda despite the constant beatings, persecutions and boycotts for about thirteen years.They worried that the Muslims would grow up with freedom of thought joining with Yathrib. They wanted to check it by any means.
The Prophetﷺ and his followers realized that Yathrib was an area where the believers could reach in search of relief. He permitted the believers to migrate in single and groups. The Meccans tried to stop them. Some of the believers were brought back to Mecca.The violence continued and the traveling couple were separated. Some were tied in their houses. If people were killed, the Meccans feared a civil war between the tribes.
They could not decide whether Prophet Muhammadﷺ would migrate or not. Because when the believers went to Abyssinia, the Prophetﷺ remained in Mecca. In the meantime, when Abu Bakar(R) asked for permission to migrate , he said, ‘You will get a good companion’, which gave way to some thoughts. They reasonably suspected that if the Prophetﷺ also went to Yathrib, an organization of Muslims would be formed there. Therefore, they were watching every move of the Prophetﷺ. The believers in Madeena were increasing day by day, and those coming from Mecca were settling and growing as a community. The Quraish discussed what would happen if Muhammadﷺ reached Yathrib to the leadership. They were worried that Mecca might be besieged by blocking the trade group on the way to Sham. They thought that those who had been under siege for thirty months, on the mountainside might think so.
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Mis’ab ibn Umair(R)was the one who migrated from Mecca and came to Madeena first. But he is regarded as the person who was appointed to introduce Islam and teach the holy Qur’an. The next to migrate was Abu Salamat bin Abdul Asad. Ibn Ishaq’s opinion is that he went to Madeena one year before the Treaty of Aqaba. The Meccans did not allow him to travel with his wife, Hind. They detained the her for a year. After a year she travelled alone to Madeena. Walking alone and reaching Tan’eem, the boundary of the Haram, Uthman bin Talha met her. He joined. He was a polytheist then and later embraced Islam.
This is what Hind later said about her journey. I have never met anyone more honourable than Uthman bin Twalha. As I was travelling alone from Mecca, he helped me as a companion. When we reach a place, where we had to get off, he would hold the reins of the camel and stop there. If I get down and move a little distance, then he will tie the vehicle to a tree at a little distance. Then he will rest there. When it was time to leave, he would bring the vehicle close to me and make the camel kneel for me and stand aside. When I was ready to continue journey, he would control the reins and continue the journey. He did like this until reached Madeena. When reached “Quba” he said. Your husband is there. I’m going. He returned to Mecca .
Abdullahi bin Jahsh and his family were the main ones who left for Madeena. Everyone in the family migrated, including his wife and children. Abdullah’s blind brother, Abu Ahmad was also with him. Although he had disability of vision, he would travel anywhere in without a companion.
Faria, the daughter of Abu Sufiyan, who was the leader of the Quraish at that time, was Abdullah’s wife. When the daughter and her family migrated, Abu Sufyan occupied the house. It is also said that he bought it from Banu Amir. Abdullahibn Jahsh, who heard this, complained to the Prophetﷺ. The Prophet ﷺ comforted him and said. Allah will give you a house in Paradise instead. Will that be enough? He happily accepted it.
Later, after the victory over Mecca, Abdullah’s brother Abu Ahmad was about to talk to the Prophetﷺ about this house, but his companions discouraged him. They said that it is not appropriate to ask the Prophetﷺ for what he had lost in the past for the sake of Islam. It was accepted by Abu Ahmad.
The believers migrated from Mecca to Madeena very secretly. But Umar (R) was not ready to leave Mecca secretly.
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Umar (R) decided Hijra or migration. He raised his sword, loaded his quiver with arrows, armed himself and reached near the holy Ka’aba. He circumambulated the holy Ka’aba seven times in front of the Quraish groups or performed Tawaf. Then Ibraheem two rak’ats of prayer from behind the ‘Maqam Ibraheem”. Then went to each Quraish group gathered there. Damn you. Those who seek destruction come to me. Those who wish to make wives widows and children orphans, come to the valley over there . Let us meet. Ali (R) says. No one was willing to face this challenge or follow Umar (R).
His son Abdullah reports what Umar (R) said. Umar says. Ayyash bin Abi Rabi’ah, Hisham bin Aas and I decided to migrate from Mecca to Madeena. We fixed a time to reach ‘Tanalub’ near an area called ‘Sarif’. It was agreed that if two persons arrived and the third person did not arrive, then the two arrived would leave and the third would be regarded as stopped by the Meccans. Ayyash and I reached Sarif at the appointed time and guessed that Hisham must have been stopped by the Meccans. Later we came to know that he was caught and taken as prisoner. We started our journey and reached near Madeena. Abu Jahl and Harith bin Hisham (who later accepted Islam) who followed us approached Ayyash and said him.
Your mother has made certain vows that she will comb her hair only when you return, and that she will only enter the house or under the roof from the sun. Therefore, you should return to Mecca immediately. Ayyash believed the words of the two family members. He decided to go with them. Umar (R) said to Ayyash. Don’t get caught in their deception. They are taking you to attack . When lice bite her head, your mother will comb it. When the sun is hot in the desert, what will she do without going inside the house to get shade. Do not fall pray for their deception. But Ayyash innocently believed Abu Jahl. He said, “I will convince my mother and bring my property and everything from Mecca .”
Umar(R) said again. Let your property go. Although I am not the richest man in Mecca, I will give you half of my wealth, but you should not go. But Ayyash determined to go. At last Umar(R) said, “If you go, travel on my healthy camel . If you feel any trouble on the way, you can escape quickly.” Ayyash accepted it. On the way, Abu Jahl used a trick. As the vehicle they were traveling was tired, he requested him to take Ayyash’s vehicle as well. He had to accept it. Gradually they took possession of the vehicle. Ayyash was arrested. When he reached Mecca, Abu Jahl called out and said, “This is how we caught the fool who left our group, so you bring those who left your group.” Then Ayyash was put in the same house where Hisham bin Aas was kept .
Verses fifty-three to fifty-five of the Zumar chapter were revealed with reference to this occasion. The concept can be read as: “Say: O my servants! who have wronged themselves. Do not despair of Allah’s mercy. Allah forgives all sins. Surely He is Merciful and Forgiving. And return to your Lord time after time and submit to Him before it comes to you the punishment, then you shall not be helped. And follow the best that has been revealed to you from your Lord before there comes to you the punishment all of a sudden while you do not even perceive”.
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Umar(R) said: When the above-mentioned verses of the holy Qur’an were revealed, I wrote them on a tablet and sent them to Hisham bin al-Aas. Hisham says I got that note at Du Tuwa. The idea was not readily understood. After praying to Allah to make me understand the meaning of those verses, and read with more attention. Then I realized that it was about us. I went to my camel and got on it. reached the destination of the Prophetﷺ.
This is the report of Ibn Ishaq that we read now. But this is what Imam Ibn Hisham recorded here. Some people who, I am convinced are authentic, told me that the Prophetﷺ asked his companions when he was in Madeena . Who is there to help me for Ayyash and Hisham? Waleed Binwaleed Bin Almughira said I am here my beloved Prophet. He says. I left for Mecca and entered very secretly. At that time, a woman was moving with food. I asked her, O slave of Allah, where are you going? She said. ‘I am going with food for two captives’. I followed her and realized the place where they were bound. It was a roofless room. I reached there when it was night and jumped over the wall and entered. I put a rock under their feet and cut the shackles with my sword. I carried them on my vehicle and started the journey. It was only after travelling some distance, we noticed that their legs were bleeding. Then they looked at the wounded part and sang like this.
‘Hal anti illa isbaun dameeti……’
Are you not just a little finger.
Wounded in the way of Allah ?.
Finally we reached Madeena and met the Prophetﷺ.
Again, the believers continued migration in single as well in groups. The Quraish stopped many of them in many ways. Among the group, Suhaib Al Roomi was ready to travel. He was stopped by the infidels of Mecca. He was rich.The enemies said, “Weren’t you poor when you came to Mecca from Rome? Did you become so rich from here?” That’s why we won’t let you go from here with your wealth . He asked. Don’t you want my assets ? Will you let me have my way if I give you all my wealth ?.They said. Yes. Suhaib(R) responded. I am leaving all my possessions in Mecca. The Prophetﷺ knew this and said. Your deal is profitable Suhaib !.
The days of suffering in Mecca: Those who had to surrender their dignity and wealth. The faith that dimmed the financial desire of man. The determination that defeated the love for the native land. Bright pictures of believers who showed in practical life, that true faith is more valuable than spouse, loved ones and temporary welfare.
The stance of the enemies, that revealed the depth of darkness which concealed blood relations, family relations, friendships and even humanity. The days marked by the bright image of the holy man, Prophetﷺ who kept saying that justice and values should be protected at all costs. Signs of the Hijra.
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The Quraish discussed the increasing number of people for Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in another country. Believers were increasing day by day in Madeena . The people were greatly influenced by the unity and thought brought up by Islam. The disputes between the tribes began to end and people started to think and understand the reality.
An example can be read as follows. Amr bin Al Jamuh was a well-known polytheist in Madeena . He was an elderly person who worshiped his own idol. The main god was the idol of ‘Manata’ made of wood. Some
youths of Banu Salama in Madeena took the idol at night and threw it to a place full of garbage. When Amr came to worship in the morning, he did not see his idol. He searched and found. Washed and cleaned and reinstalled. Then he said. Who did this! Surely I will teach them a lesson. But the next day they it happened again . He washed and cleaned and consecrated the idol . Finally he came with a sword and put it on the idol’s neck and said, I am trying hard to find out who is doing this. If you have any ability, protect yourself. Here I am giving you this sword. When he arrived the next morning, the idol was nowhere to be found. He searched. And there it is in a pile of garbage with a dead dog lying in an old well. He thought. How foolish I am to worship an image !!.. Do I worship that which cannot save itself? And how can it save me? His thought went straight. Finally he embraced Islam. Then he recited a poem.
‘ Wallahi lau kunta ilahan lan takun…
“Surely, if you were a god
Will not come with dog’s dead body
Woe to you forever.
I know now that I was bad in the past.
All praises are due to You, Almighty Allah
In giving the best way
From the grave-like darkness
Light will be given through faithful Prophet ﷺ.
Thanks be to You forever.”
The thought that gave light to Amr influenced many people and they also started walking on the right path.
The Quraish gathered at ‘Darunnadwa’. It was in this house of ‘Qusayy bin Kilab’ that the Quraish took important decisions. Representatives from almost every tribe in Mecca were present. Utbah, Shayba and Abu Sufyan from the Banu Abdu Shams tribe. Tuaima and Jubair bin Mut’im of the tribe of Banu Naufal. From Banu Abdi Dar, Nalr bin Haris, from Banu Asad, Abul Bukhtari and Hakeem bin Hisam.From Banu Makhzoom, Abu Jahl, from Banu Saham, sons of Hajjaj, Nubaih and Munabbah. From Banu Jumah tribe, Umayyat bin Khalaf. Representatives of other small and big tribes also arrived. The conditions were thoroughly analysed .The main point of the discussion is, what to do with the Prophet Muhammadﷺ.
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Many people presented different opinions. Abul Bukhtiri said, chain the Prophet Muhammadﷺ and lock him in a room. Some poets have been done like that in the past. He will die lying there .Then there appeared an old man from Najd, having beard and curly hair. If you detain him like that, he may escape through the back door. Then the attack against you will be strong, so you should look for other opinions. Then Abul Aswad said, then he can be deported. Get him out of our sight. Then we don’t need to search for what happened. Thus we can live hear happily enjoying our friendships and relationships. Even then, that old man intervened. What is this suggestion? I don’t think this is a good idea. Don’t you know charming speech of Muhammad ﷺ? All of his attractive behavior and dealings. If we expel him from here, he will reach some Arab tribe. All the people of that tribe will be influenced. And that tribe will be organized for his help. They will attack you and take over all the power and control here. Or whatever you fear will happen. So think of another opinion.
Then Abu Jahal got up. He said. I have an opinion. They asked. What is it Abul Hakam? He began by saying, “Come forward from every tribe, strong and capable man. Everyone should have sharp swords in their hands.” Then go together and kill Muhammadﷺ in one swoop. Thus our work will end. All tribes will be responsible for the blood together, so the Abdu Manaf family will not be to take revenge. The old man responded. This is the best opinion and I support it. Actually he was Iblis. Appeared in the form of an old man from Najd.
Everyone left the place. No objections were raised. But by that time, Gibreel (A) approached the Prophetﷺ and said him. ‘Today you should not sleep in the bed where usually sleep. Then Gibreel (A) told the Prophetﷺ about the deceitful plans of the Quraish and informed that Allah Almighty has given permission for migration.
The Prophet ﷺ came out of his house at noon in the blazing sun. It is a time when people do not go out. He covered his face with a cloth and walked straight to Sideeq’s house. The family saw the scene of the Prophet ﷺ coming and told Sideeq. The beloved Prophetﷺ is coming!. Sideeq(R) immediately said. Oh my beloved Prophetﷺ’May my father and mother sacrificed for you’. There must be something important to come at this time? By the time he thought about it, he reached the steps of the house and greeted him. Sideeq (R) returned the greeting and led him inside. Immediately the Prophet ﷺ said, “Tell those here to stand aside.” Sideeq (R)said there is no one else here O Prophet! Only our two daughters are here. Why did you come at this time? Allah has given me permission to migrate. Soon after the Prophetﷺ said this, Sideeq (R) requested to allow him to accompany the Prophetﷺ. He burst into tears with happiness when he got permission. Daughter Ayisha(R) says, I have never seen such tears of happiness. Then Abu Bakar(R) said, let’s go in one of these two vehicles of mine….
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Both the camels are specially cared by Sideeq(R) for four months. They were prepared for the journey by giving them leaves of the Samur tree. The Prophet ﷺ wanted to give it’s rate. But Abu Bakar (R) gave it to the Prophet ﷺ for free.
A clear plan was prepared for the journey . Abdullah ibn Uraiqit was asked to bring the vehicles at the predetermined place. Aamir bin Fuhaira, the attendant of Sideeq (R) was assigned to herd goats in Mecca to collect information and watch the movements of the Quraish. The Prophet ﷺ and Sideeq (R) told Sideeq’s son Abdullah the place they intended to reach first. He instructed him to reach there before Amir and arrange things. Ayisha (R) says . ‘We prepared the provisions for the journey—the essential food and supra were kept ready in Tote bag. There was only five thousand Dirham with my father .He kept it in a pouch. It was entrusted to Abdullah to deliver it as directed.
The Prophet ﷺ went home. The Prophet ﷺ knew that their plan was to surround the house and attack simultaneously . So entrusted Ali to lie on the bed of the Prophet ﷺ. Ali (R) slept covering with a blanket made in Halar Mouth. Even if they left Mecca , Ali was to stay in Mecca for a few days to return the properties to the owners,that the people had entrusted to the Prophet ﷺ for safekeeping. Enemies surrounded the house at night. When they looked through the window, there was someone in the bed of the Prophet ﷺ and they were looking from time to time. It was midnight. The door of the house of the Prophet ﷺ opened slowly. He took a handful of soil and chanted some verses from the holy Qur’an. It was verses one to nine of chapter “Yaseen”. Then the soil was sprinkled . It fell on the heads of everyone who surrounded the house. They fell into a comfortable slumber. The Prophet ﷺ came out walking calmly . Walked straight to Sideeq’s house. The Prophet ﷺ and Sideeqe went out through the back door of the house after taking the necessary things. Moved to the cave ‘Thour’. The cave is located on the top of the mountain, about three kilo meters from the holy Ka’aba in the south of Mecca. To reach Madeena from Mecca one should travel to the north. The Prophet ﷺ thought that the Quraish will search the north part. So both of them travelled towards south. This was beyond what the Quraish could have imagined.
In the late hours of the night, the Prophetﷺ and Sideeq (R) walked away. Sidheeq (R) travelled with great care. Sometimes walked in front. Then he will move backwards and move alternatively between left and right. The Prophet ﷺ asked. What is this? He said, “I go ahead and look forward to ensure that there is no danger. I Look back often to see if someone is following us.Moving left and right to perform the duty of a body guard .
When the Prophet ﷺ left the house, a man appeared among the armed men who surrounded the house. He asked, “Whom are you all waiting for here?” It is Muhammad ﷺ. Well, Muhammad (ﷺ)has gone to his destination sprinkling soil on your head. They were surprised. Immediately they looked inside the house. There is the man under the blanket. They were relieved.
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At dawn they looked excitedly at the Prophetﷺ. Each of them said within themselves that the time for the mission was near. Just then, the sleeping person comes out removing the blanket. They looked carefully. Alas! We are defeated. Is that Ali? Ali came out with water for ablution. The people around the house were surprised. Someone among them said. What the man said earlier, was right. Prophet Muhammadﷺ has escaped. Ali(R) was asked. What! are you impersonating? Your leader does not impersonate like this.
Overjoyed at having undertaken and completed such a great task, Ali(R) later sang – ‘Waqaytu bi Nafsee Khaira man watia ssara…’
“I sacrificed my life and waited for the Holy Prophetﷺ,
The best of those who walked on the earth.
The purest of the saints, circumambulated the Ka’aba, The great one, walked in “Hijr”.
The traitors surrounded to kill
The One defeated their tricks
After being in the cave,
It was as if the Quraish deceived themselves. Referring to this occasion, Surat al-Anfal, verse 30 of the holy Qur’an was revealed. The idea reads as follows: “The occasion when the disbelievers devised schemes to exile, imprison, or kill you . When they formed their own scheme, Allah used his schemes. Allah is the Most Wise of those who use schemes”.
The frightened Quraish decided to adopt any means to follow the Prophet ﷺ. They searched all around.
The Prophetﷺ and Sideeq (R) approached the cave Thour . Sideeq(R) said. Can you wait outside for a while? I will go inside the cave first. If there is any difficulty, I shall receive it. Before waiting for the answer of the Prophetﷺ Sideeq(R)entered the cave. He inspected inside the cave thoroughly. He tore off the tip of his dress and filled holes in the cave. He pressed the remaining hole with his foot and made it easy for the Prophetﷺ to rest and welcomed the Prophetﷺ to the cave. The Prophetﷺ entered. He put his head on Sideeq’s(R) lap. And so was the Prophet(ﷺ)who is the symbol of ‘Sidq’ or truthfulness. ‘Sideeq ‘, the true witness of faith, rest in the cave of Thour.
There is also this in the narration of Ibn Abi Shaiba. When Sideeq(R) entered the cave first, something hit his hand. The hand was cut and blood started to flow. He didn’t care. He looked at his hand and sang like this.
“Hal anti illa isbaun dameeti…”. He was relieved to see that the Prophetﷺ on his lap and he was dozing. Not before long, he felt something bites at the leg, that is pressed against the hole. Sideeq(R) did not move his leg If any creature comes out, will it harm the Prophetﷺ? Will the noise disturb his sleep? These thoughts troubled Sideeq(R). But his eyes filled with tears. While suffering from severe pain in his leg, unknowingly tears fell down.
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The Prophetﷺ woke up and inquired Abu Bakar(R). Sideeq, whose big toe was bitten from the hole, told the matter. When he lifted his foot, he realized that the bite was of a snake living in the cave. The Prophetﷺ consoled his friend who was guarding with his life at stake. The Prophetﷺ applied his saliva to the wound. Sideeq(R) was relieved. The Holy Prophetﷺ noticed that the lower part of his garment was torn and inquired about it. When he found out that it was torn to cover the holes in the cave, he raised both hands and prayed for his soulmate. Oh Allah give my Sideeq the same status as me in heaven.
Abdullah and Asma’u(R) performed their duties in Sideeq’s (R) house as directed. Abdullah gathered information and came to the cave. Before dawn, he will go to mountain then again to Mecca to observe the new movements of the Quraish. Aamir bin Fuhaira would reach near the cave herding goat. He would milk them. Drinking the heated milk, relieved of the hunger.
When Sideeq’s father came to know that the Prophetﷺ and Sideeq had left, he asked his children whether he had gone taking all his wealth . Father had not accepted Islam then. Wise Asma’u said to her grandfather. No, the amount we need is left here. She consoled him and asked him to touch the cloth covered with pebbles which was in the place where Sideeq(R) usually put money bag . In fact, Sideeq (R) did not keep any property in the house. In the evening the food was prepared. As she could not find anything to tie it with, she took off her own dress and cut it into two pieces and tied it . Walked to the cave Thour very secretly. At times she turned back and removed the footprints so that no one else would follow her . The Prophet ﷺ blessed Asma’u, (R)the daughter of Sideeq (R) , who was standing in front of the cave with food. The Prophetﷺ conferred her the name ‘Datu Nitaqain’ .
The Quraish rushed in search of the Prophetﷺ to all directions. Finally they reached this cave. It is far enough to see if they look carefully. It is not difficult to find out who is inside. At that time Allah diverted their attention with two insignificant shields. One, a spider made a web at the entrance of the cave. Two, two pigeons laid eggs near it. It can also be read in a report that a plant sprouted there and sprouted leaves. Some of the Quraish reached a distance of forty meters. Looked at the entrance of the cave. They saw the cobwebs and pigeons and went to the valley and told their friends. There is no one there. There is no possibility.
While watching from the entrance of the cave, the Prophetﷺ was praying. Sideeq (R) was looking with anxiety . The beloved Prophet ﷺ calmly continued to pray. Meanwhile, Umayyat bin Khalaf reached the top of the cave. If he looks down, he can see the people inside. Sideeq (R) became very nervous. He was troubled by the thought that how to protect the Prophet ﷺ. Immediately the Prophet ﷺ comforted him. Oh Sideeq, what is your opinion about the two people under the protection of Allah? Two people with Allah as the third. Sideeq(R) immediately said, I am not afraid of my safety but of you .
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Sideeq(R)said, O Prophet(ﷺ), if they look at their feet, won’t they see us ? They are standing there. Do not be afraid, my friend , Allah is with us. Sideeq(R) felt peace of mind.
Referring to this occasion, the Holy Qur’an was revealed. The concept of the fortieth verse of chapter ‘Tawba’ can be read as follows: “When the Prophet was one of the two in the cave when the disbelievers exiled him, but no one helped the Prophet, but Allah helped him? Only the Prophet and his companion were in the cave. The Prophet said to the second, ‘Allah is with us, so you need not fear.So Allah sent down His tranquility upon him. Allah gave him strength with an army that you cannot see and made lowest the word of those who disbelieved and the word of Allah, that is the highest; and Allah is Mighty, wise.”
Utba urinated there . It came in front of the people sitting in the cave and welled up there . The feet of the Prophet ﷺ resembled the footprints of Prophet Ibrahim in Maqam Ibraheem. Quraish followed the footsteps and reached the entrance of the cave. they asked themselves. Where did he go from here ? To the right? To the left? Finally, Umayyat bin Khalaf asked. What is your opinion about this cave? Oh, there is a spider older than the birth of Muhammad (ﷺ) built cobweb . They walked back. It can be seen in the narration of Imam Abu Nuaim. Asmau, said that her father Sideeq(R) said. A man came facing the cave. Then I said. Dear Prophet , have they seen us? Hey, the angels will hide him with their wings. It won’t be too late. The man sat there to urinate facing our cave. Then the Prophet ﷺ said. If he had seen us, he would not have done this.
Imam Buseeri (R) quotes this cave dwelling.
“When ‘goodness’ and ‘excellence’ dwelt in the cave
Enemies go blindly in front
Although ‘Sidq’ and ‘Sideeq’ were in the cave
‘There is no one in’, what they said
How can a person be in a cave!?
On it’s entrance the brooding dove
and the spider.
After receiving Allah’s protection
Why the army and why the fort. ?
After two days of staying in the Cave Thour , which is seven hundred and forty-eight meters above sea level, it is time to return to Madeena. The journey also needs certain plans. Need a guide who knows all ways from Mecca to Madeena . Thus, Abdullah bin, Uraiqit a man belonged to Banudayl tribe, was hired. Although he was a non-believer, he was a faithful and expert guide. He was in contract with Aas bin’ Wail Assahmi. He reached the cave on the third day as he had been entrusted with two camels earlier.
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Let’s summarize the journey of the Prophetﷺ one more time. The Prophetﷺ left the house in Mecca where the Prophetﷺ lived with his wife Khadeeja (R). On the night of ‘Safar’ twenty-sixth of the first year of Hijra the Prophetﷺ left for Madeena. It was around 622 September 8th of the Christian Era. He reached the “Hazwira” market in Mecca, which was in the courtyard of of Ummu Hani, daughter of Abu Talib. This is at the place of ‘Babul Vida’u’, which is adjacent to the Abdul Aziz Gate of today’s Masjid-ul-Haram. From there, he walked straight to the house of Abu Bakar Sideeq (R). The said house was later built as a masjid under the name of ‘Masjid Abi Bakar’. It was later demolished. This is the place where “Abraj Mecca or Mecca Tower” stands today. But the Prophet ﷺ and Sideeq (R) traveled 5,500 meters to the south and reached Mountain Thour . Spend three days in the cave. Ibn Uraiqit arrived with vehicles.
Continued journey from ‘Thour’ on Sunday night, September 29th/ Safar 11. The beloved Prophetﷺ , Sideeq (R) , Amir bin Fuhaira, the guide set off towards the Red Sea in search of a route not usually taken by travelers. The Prophet ﷺ performed special prayers. The meaning of the prayer can be understood as follows: ‘All praise be to You, O Allah, who created me from nothingness. Be my companion in my journey and help my family! Protect me from the dangers of night and day and from the evils of this material world and time! Make me your humble servant and shower your blessing on the resources you have given! Bring me to perfection and increase my love for You! You are the Protector of me and all the weak! I seek protection by Your self so that your anger and displeasure do not come. According to Your decision that the sky and the earth came to existence. Darkness turned to light. The affairs of all the people who have passed away and living come to right course .I seek refuge from You not to lose the blessings and boons. I seek Your help to avert calamities and not to be the object of Your anger. Everything happens under Your control.
The mountain ranges of ‘Bushaimat’ in the northwest of Mecca are on the right side of the vehicle. The journey continued in this way until reaching the valley of Mecca known as ‘Wadi Ibraheem’ . When the vehicle reached “Wadi Urna”, turned to north. The vehicle went forward .On the north part, there was the house of Ummu Hushaim . There resides the tribe of Khuza’a . From there, before reaching ‘Mar al Lahiran’, reached “Darbil Habb”. It is known in history that the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah took place here in the 6th year of Hijra. It is adjacent to the area now known as Shumaisi. It is near this area that the signs, demarcating the boundaries of the Haram, were erected in later times.
Then he moved from ‘Marru Lahran’ towards ‘Al Murar’ passing through the Muqassir-Daf mountains. The area of Al murar Hill was later known as “Al Fajjul Karimi”. It was through this route that the Prophet ﷺ performed the Umrah pilgrimage with fourteen hundred followers in the year of Hudaibiyah.
Journey of the first day continues after departure from cave Thour .
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From Wadi Murar, the journey continued through ‘Harratu Lajnan’ or Lajnan lava tract. The name ‘Lajnan mountain’ is also used about this place. When the Quraish asked for an explanation, the Prophet ﷺ said that he had met a group of Quraish merchants here during the night of Isra’u . This area, which is forty meters above sea level, is located about fifty kilometers away from Mecca. The length of the lava track is about ten kilometers.
Then entered the valley of Al Sagu. Now traveling through Al-Qashash mountain ranges. A little west from here there is a flat area. It was in the volcanic area adjacent to this place that two hundred cavalry led by Khalid bin Waleed met the Prophet ﷺ and his followers in 6 AH. Khalid’s army left Mecca knowing that the Prophet ﷺ and fourteen hundred followers were on their way to perform Umrah. After that, they reached Hudaibiyah and signed a truce. On the way back from there, when they reached here again, the forty-eighth chapter of the holy Qur’an announcing ‘the victory’, “Al Fath” was revealed.
Father of Barau bin Azib (R) asked Abu Bakar (R) what did you do after leaving the Thour cave with the Prophet ﷺ. We left at night. Then the journey continued during the day. We looked for a shade in the mid-day sun. Finally got the shade of a rock. I entered the shade and provided shade for the Prophet ﷺ. After leveling the ground and spreading what was in hand, he said to the Prophet ﷺ, “take rest a little while I watch the surroundings.” I got out of the shade and watched the surroundings. The thought was whether anyone who started looking for us has reached here .There is a herdsman. He came closer aiming for the shade of the rock where we were looking for shade. I asked him where are you from ? He said, from Mecca . When he said the name I realised him . I asked him. Does your goat have milk? He said yes. Can you milk us? He tied the goat. I said, clean the dirt and mud from the udder? He milked. I took milk from him and came to the Prophet ﷺ with a bowl of milk. I also took a bowl for the Prophet ﷺ for ablution . A piece of cloth is placed on the mouth of the bowl. He is sleeping well. I didn’t want to wake him up. I waited until he woke up. I mixed equal measure of milk and water and told him to drink until I was satisfied.Then he asked. Can we continue our journey? I said yes! We continued our journey.
By the second day, the journey passed into the town of Usfan. Around the thirteenth of September, Rabi-ul-Awwal two.
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He decided to avoid the busy trade route and continue his journey. Thus, he crossed the town of ‘Asfan’ and entered the Goula valley. He continued his journey along the western side of ‘Amaji’ through the ‘Naqara’ volcanic region. Then crossed the ‘Uwaija’ valley and reached ‘Jabal al-Akhal’.
Later, the fourth chapter of the Holy Qur’an, the one hundred and second verse of ‘Al Nisa’u’ was revealed here. The verse was revealed about performing prayer in times of fear such as war. When the distance to perform the prayer ‘Qasr’ or shortened prayer was mentioned in the hadeeth, the distance used in the hadeeth was from Mecca to Usfan. The distance between the said areas is forty-eight miles. One Hashimi mile is two and three-quarter kilometers, which equals one hundred and thirty-two kilometers.
Then he came to the junction of Ghaula Valley and Golan Valley. This is the place where the eastern caravan route is. He went forward again and traveled parallel to ‘Mount Jumdan. Later, once, when the Prophetﷺ passed through it, he said to his companions, “This is Jumdan. “Go ahead. The Mufrdeen have won.” Abu Huraira says. We asked who are the Mufrideen? ‘The men and women who remember Allah a lot’.
Then he entered the village of ‘Amaj’. From there he passed into the Baqawiyah volcanic area on the west side. There were two huts there. The Prophetﷺ and his companions reached near the huts. He asked the housewife Ummu Ma’bad. Is there dates or meat to sell? She said. There is nothing here! Those who asked were troubled by the answer. Ummu Ma’abad understood that and said, “If there is anything here, we would be happy to give it to you. But there is nothing. Then the goat standing in their hut caught the attention of the Prophetﷺ. Whom does it belong to?” He asked. They said. It is ours. But it is too tired to graze with other goats. The householder Abu Ma’ab had gone to herd the goat. The Prophetﷺ asked. Can it be milked?. It is not a milked goat. Shall we take a look? They said, Yes you may. The Prophetﷺ brought the goat closer. Chanted the name of Allah and touched the goat’s udder. What a miracle!. He milked the goat and poured milk it into the bowl. The Prophetﷺ himself gave the milk to everyone. Finally he also drank it. After milking for the second time, when the bowl was full, it was given to the house owner. He resumed his journey.
Abu Nu’aim narrates that Ummu Ma’bad said. On that day, we had a goat milked by the Prophetﷺ. In the 18th year of the Hijra, during the reign of Umar(R), there was poverty and there was no rain, and it was hot everywhere. Therefore, it was called ‘Amu Ramada’ or ‘the year of ash’. It is known that even at that time this goat of ours used to give milk and we used to milk it in the morning and in the evening.. Hisham bin Hubaish says. I have seen that goat.
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It was not long after the Prophetﷺ left. Abu Ma’bad came back with the goats. He was tired after walking with the goats. The goats taken to pasture are also not healthy enough. Not even one is pregnant. He came inside the house and was surprised to see milk. He asked Atiqa. From where did you get the milk? Ummu Ma’bad’s real name is Atiqa bint Khalid. She belongs to the Banu Khuza’a family. She was confused how to answer her husband’s question. However she began to say. A very special person passed this way. Abu Ma’bad said. Well, describe the matter. She said. A person with a bright face and an elegant expression. Beautiful body shape. Not too fat or a prominent belly. Black eyes. Long eyelashes. Good clarity of voice. Long neck. Long eyebrows. Long neck and thick beard. Even when he is in thought, a dignity surrounds him. When he starts to speak it is like shedding light. Each word is like falling pearls.
Distinct from others by elegance. The most beautiful person among the three. If he speaks, those who are with him will pay close attention. If he orders something to them, they will hasten to fulfill it. They will compete for performing that task. There is no weariness of old age or physical infirmities in him. All in all, an impressive great personality. This is the great man who assigned among the Quraish. Abu Ma’bad said. Oh, if I could meet him, I would travel along with him.
The Quraysh did not get any idea as to where the Prophetﷺ went after leaving Mecca. Asma’u (R)says. After the Prophetﷺ and father left, the Quraish leaders came to our house. Abu Jahl asked me. Where is your father? I said I don’t know. That wicked person, Abu Jahl slapped on my face in anger. My earring broke with the force of the blow. We had no idea where they went until three days after leaving the Cave. A voice was heard from the mountain side of Mecca . It was the sound of a jinn. Humans could also hear it.
“Jasallahu Rabbunasi Khaira Jazaihi
Rafiqaini halla khaimatai Ummi Ma’badi…
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The gist of the poem can be copied like this.
O Allah, shower your grace
Upon the soulmates who reached
The tent of Ummu Ma’bad.
Reached there upholding morality
What a lucky persons! the companions !
Of Muhammad ﷺ.
Know Oh Qusay, your evil deeds
That Allah will not tolerate.
Ask and look at the sister,
What is the story of the goat? What is the story of the pot?
Testimonies of the goat .
Asked for a goat without milk
Gave a bowl of milk
Travelers drank to their heart’s content
At parting time gifted her
A brimming milk bowl
Fountain of milk, and perennial goodness.
After leaving the hut of Ummu Ma’bad, the vehicle entered the Qudayd valley. Qudayd is one hundred and fifty kilometer valley that extends to the Red Sea. The northern part of this valley is the boundary of the Al Mushallal lava tract.
A story quoted by Imam Baihaqi as narrated by Abu Bakar(R) can be read as follows. The Prophetﷺ and I left Mecca. We reached an Arab village. There was a hut on a slope. The Prophetﷺ moved toward that hut. There was a woman only. She said
If you want hospitality here, tell the chief of this village. Now I am the only woman here. We did not respond. Soon her son came home with all the goats. Then she said to her son, give them one goat and knife. And tell them that my has asked you to slaughter the goat and prepare food. When the son came and told the matter, the Prophetﷺ said, put the knife there and get a bowl to drink milk from. The Prophetﷺ touched the udder of the goat and milked. Sent a bowl full of milk to the lady. She drank. Then another bowl full of milk was given to Abu Bakar(R). The Prophetﷺ drank another cup of milk.
They stayed there for two days. Her goats increased . She used to introduce the Prophet ﷺ as Mubarak/ blessed person . After some days, the mother, and her son reached Madeena herding their goats . By chance they came to Abu Bakar (R). When he saw her son, Sideeq (R) recognised them . The son said to mother this is the person whom we had met with the man, ‘Mubarak’. Mother also recognized Abu Bakar (R). She asked. Who was that person who was with you? Don’t you know who it was ?. No. That is the prophetk(ﷺ) . She asked. Can I see him ?. Brought them to the presence of the Prophet ﷺ and hosted them . She presented the Prophetﷺ cheese and other home made eatables. The Prophetﷺ also rewarded them with clothes and other things. Abu Bakar (R)said, no further information is known about them except that they accepted Islam.
Imam Baihaqi and Ibn Ishaq have observed this narration as two narrations of the same incident as this narration has many similarities with the incident of Ummu Ma’bad
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The Quraish strengthened the search for the Prophetﷺ. They announced a reward of one hundred camels for those who kill the Prophetﷺ and Sideeq(R) or bring them alive. Meanwhile, a group came to Ummu Ma’bad’s house. They asked her if Muhammadﷺ with such and such attributes had come that way? She said. I don’t know that. A man who milked a milkless goat came this way. Then the Quraish said, “That is the man we are looking for.”
Meanwhile, Suraqat bin Malik, a man belongs to Kinana tribe, was in a meeting at a place called Qudayd. He was a horseman and an expert about the ways of the desert. A man from the tribe of Banu Mudlaj came to him and asked , “Did you see a shadow moving this way?” Didn’t three or four people pass by? Are they the Prophet Muhammadﷺ and his companions? Suraqa says. I knew that it was them. But I gestured with my eyes to the man to be silent. Then he said, “It is not them. They some other persons. They came down in search of their lost camel”. Then an idea dawned in my mind to catch them myself without anyone knowing. I told my attendant secretly to lead my horse a short distance down the valley. After a while I left the meeting place, took my spear and weapons, and went out through the front door of the house. Slowly approached my horse. I jumped up on it and started journey. I galloped the horse. I noticed the shadow of the Prophetﷺ and Sideeq(R). Immediately I took the arrows and checked the omen. The Arabs had a custom. In order to see the omens, three arrows are placed in a quiver. In one, it is written, ‘you can do’ , in yet another, ‘you can’t, and in the third one, nothing is written. After that, lots will be drawn. If you get a ‘yes’ arrow, it is a good omen and if you get a ‘no’ arrow, it is considered a bad omen. The custom is that if you get the third arrow, you should draw it again.
When he drew lots, he got an arrow that said ‘don’t bother them’. Suraqa continues. I did not consider it. The reward of hundred camel prompted me again. I ignored the bad omen. I moved forward. I saw the shadow of the Prophetﷺ and Sideeq (R). My horse’s feet sank into the ground. I fell to the ground. Again got up and went forward ignoring the omen. Reached near the Prophet’sﷺ camel . Sideeq was looking at me. The Prophetﷺ was reciting the holy Quran. I could hear the recitation. Again my vehicle went deep till my knees. Immediately I sought help from the Prophetﷺ and Sideeq. I called out. You take my weapons and food. I will not harm you. Immediately the Prophetﷺ said to Sideeq. Ask him what he wants. Immediately I shared the news of the announcement of the reward by the Meccans . I told them the discussions and deliberations of the Quraish. They did not accept my food or weapons. Instead, they only told me to keep the information secret. I was convinced that the religion of the Prophetﷺ would prevail and the power of tomorrow would be in the hands of the Prophetﷺ. So I asked them for a security. The contract to be written for me to use when Islam gain supremacy in future. The Prophetﷺ told Sideeq (R)to write it down. He wrote it on a bone.
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When I was about to leave after taking the protection agreement, the Prophetﷺ asked me. How it will be Suraqa If you wear two royal bracelets of Kisra on your hand?. I asked, is it Kisra, the son of Hurmuz? Yes. Suraqa remembered it with surprise. Went back to Mecca. He diverted all the Quraish who had gone in search of the Prophetﷺ on their way back. He kept his promise to keep the information of meeting the Prophetﷺ a secret. Suraqa, who came to attack in the morning, became a guard in the evening.
Whenever Suraqa approached the vehicle of the Prophetﷺ, Sideeq cried. The Prophetﷺ kept reassuring him that Allah is with us. Sideeq said “O Prophet, I am not crying because I am afraid that something will happen to me, but because I am afraid that something will happen to you.” If I am killed, I am a person. If something untoward happens to you , it is not a person’s loss. This is what Sideeq said inside the cave also. But at none of these times was the Prophetﷺ felt fear. He was either in prayer or in recitation of the holy Qur’an. Each scene was a combination of the devotion of the lover and the determination of the Prophetﷺ.
The days of Hijra were over. Suraqa was aware of the growth of Islam and the progress of the Prophetﷺ.Thus, in the eighth year of Hijra, the Prophetﷺ and his followers came to the Kaaba, announcing the victory over Mecca. The Prophetﷺ announced amnesty to all. Suraqa moved forward carrying the protection document he had received eight years ago. He reached near the Prophetﷺ standing in the middle of the crowd. He showed the agreement and introduced himself. The Prophetﷺ recognized him. He embraced Islam wholeheartedly.
There is still one more hope left in Suraqa’s mind. Suraqa confirmed that it will also come true. Time passed. The beloved ﷺ traveled to the Hereafter. Suraqa waited again. After the reign of Sideeq, Umar became the ruler. Muslims conquered Persia. Sa’ad bin Abi Waqas arrived in Madeena with valuable property and laid everything in front of the Khaleefa. Those are the royal bracelets of Kisra. Immediately the Caliph summoned Suraqa . Gave him those royal bracelets. Then Umar said, holding up both his hands. All praise be to You, O Allah, who put the royal bracelets of Kisra on the hands of the Arab villager of Banu Mudlaj….
Let’s come to the route of Hijra. The beloved Prophetﷺ and Sideeq continue their journey.From Qudayd valley they passed to Al Mushallal lava tract. This is the trade route between Yemen and Damascus. Today this place is known as ‘Al Qudaydiyyah’. Did not proceed far through Al Mushallal valley, by then entered the Kulaiya valley. It is said that he met Suraqa here. He passed this place after the afternoon of September 13th. According to it, the clouds appeared in front of Suraqa and covered the Prophetﷺ. It was then that he asked the Prophetﷺ for help to save the legs of his horse.
Later the movement turned slightly towards the east.
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The journey of the Prophet ﷺ changed to the east and entered Wadi al-Kharrar. The travel path is adjacent to the Al-Azwariya lava tract. After a little further and turning to the left, he reached ‘Juhfa’. It is here that the eighty-fifth verse of the Al-Qasas chapter of the Holy Qur’an was revealed. The idea is as follows: ” Most surely He Who has made Quran binding on you will bring you back to the destination” . Or He will bring back the beloved Prophet ﷺ to Mecca one day. This was a verse that soothes the pain of longing for the native land.
‘Juhfa’ is familiar to travelers. The Prophet ﷺ has also passed through it. It is an area through which caravan usually pass. The ruins of the “Alya” palace built by the Abbasids, are here. It is also the border or Meeqath where the pilgrims coming from Egypt, Syria and other regions have to perform Ihram. It was here that the Prophet ﷺ met his paternal uncle Abbas (R) on his way to Macca victory in the 8th year of Hijra. Abbas(R) was migrating to Madeena with his family. Then he returned to Mecca with the Prophet ﷺ. It was a meeting that made the Prophet ﷺ very happy.
After leaving the cave of Thour, two days of constant travel ended . Abu Bakar’s (R ) contextual services fulfilled the task of an attendant and bodyguard. The experience of trading many times was an asset for the great man, Abu Bakar (R).
On the third day after leaving the cave. The third day of Rabi’ul Awwal, September Fourteenth. The journey continued through Wadi Kharrar along the Kham creek. This is an area where you can experience good water. Later, the Prophet ﷺ camped here on his way back after the farewell Hajj in the 10th year of Hijra. In a speech during that time, the Prophetﷺ specially praised Ali (R). It is recorded in history. The names Juhfa Valley and Hijas Valley are also used for this area.
In the desert area, now traveling through a land which has characteristics of the Medeena, with occasional springs and streams. Sometimes the Prophet’s ﷺ vehicle would move forward through the hills and sometimes through the valleys. Thus, it reached the area of Al-Murrah. On its western side, a stream called ‘Maa Ahya’ was flowing. It was near this stream that the group led by Ubaidat bin Al-Harith, appointed by the Prophet ﷺ, met the group of Abu Sufyan. There were eighty companions with Ubaydt bin Al-Harith at that time.
Immediately after crossing the ‘Murrah’ hills, they entered the ‘Laqf’ valley. There are many notable signs on this route. The sub-routes of Riu Abu Duqawema: Riya Al Humayya: and the Zaad Valley are the most important ones. Then, on the way forward, walked to the ‘Khushum’ hill next to the “Al Musaidira” fountain. These parts, which are known as Mustasillathu Khushum, are among the small hills where travelers seek shade along the high mountains. The length of Humayya Path is six hundred meters and it is located at a height of one hundred and eight meters above the sea level.
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At many places on this path you can see small holes or tanks carved in stone for drinking water for quadrupeds. They are the signs of the past and can be seen in some places even today. The journey continued one hundred and fifty meters and passed the “Swad” valley. Then traveled through a region which is one hundred and one metre above from the sea level. Then reached near the “Musaidira” rivulet. Then traveled a distance of one thousand and eight hundred meters along the “Rigilian road” ..This is a twelve kilometer long road parallel to the normal trade route. It is generally a less affected place by torrent. Many old graves with signs can be seen here. Then entered the “Ritwakha valley”. Here it connects to the Al Qusaybah Lava Tract.
There is a stream called Ummu al-Hab. Then entered “Wadi Al-Faru” through “Al-Khusaybah” . وادي الفرع. In recent times the writer has visited various parts of this valley. There are independent studies on this valley alone. It is an important valley in Hijaz itself. This area connecting with the valleys of Liqf, Mijah and Al Qaha is also a parallel road to Madeena . The Prophetﷺ traveled four kilometers through Wadi Farau and reached the valley of Liqf. From there he turned west and reached Mount Mulaiza. It is famous for soft stones. Then traveled seven kilometres and near the “Ridwan well”. Or on the third night of Rabi’ul Awwal, or September thirteen wednesday, the Prophetﷺ and his companions stayed there .
We are going through days of tiresome travel of adventure crossing valleys and hills. This is a journey that afflicts the pain of laborious travel and the rough travel path. Each hill, mountain and its slopes have independent names and features . Such readings constantly convince us that Muhammadﷺ is not a legend or a character, but a personality who lived among thousands of historical testimonies. The Prophetﷺ showed the way of life necessary for man through his practical life, Knowing and experiencing the heat and stress of human life .
Let’s come to Hijra itself. On Thursday morning on the 4th of Rabi’ul Awwal, the journey continued. He moved forward from near the Lakhf stream. This valley joins the Mijah stream. After about two hundred meters, reached the ‘Mubairik’ well at the confluence of the valleys. Traders and non-travellers camped mainly around the available wells. That’s why the wells are important landmarks in Arabian travel. Later even place names were named after the well. “Abyar Ali” is an example. Abyar is used in connection with the Arabic word “Bi’r” for well.
Crossing the streams of Dhul Aswain and Meejah, the vehicle of Prophet Muhammadﷺ reached the valley of “Ummu Kamd”.
We are reading the details based on a study trip conducted by Dr. Abdullah Al-Qali with a group of researchers on the same travel route that the Prophetﷺ crossed a millennium and a half ago.
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After the Prophet ﷺ and his Companions left the ‘Ummukashd’ Valley, they traveled through the Saqib Valley (Wadi Saqib) and entered the northwest-flowing Ujairid Valley, turning in a northeastern direction.
The journey passed through the “Batn Ri”, or Ria Pass, connecting the Ujairid Valley with the Dhi Salam Valley.
Then proceeded through six kilometers of the rocky valley of De Salam to the dry waterway of “Madlajat Tihin”. Then they entered the Valley of Tihin (Wadi Tihin) and proceeded to the Valley of Al-Qahah (Wadi al-Qaha). Deesalam, which is mentioned in the first line of Burda, the world-famous love poem of the Prophetﷺ, will be this area. It is a place full of a special type of plant called ‘Salam’ . We can still visit the valley full of ‘Salam’. The writer had the opportunity to visit this valley full of salam grass.
After leaving the Di Salam valley, it meets the third Madlajat or dry watercourse, the Madlajat Tihin, which enters the Tihin Valley (Wadi Tihin). Madljat Tihin is surrounded by two mountains: Al-Kabsh (Jabal al-Kabsh) to the east and Mount al-Qamra’ (Jabal al-Qamra’) to the west.
Then entered Al-Ghusrianah(الغثريانة). Al-Ghusrianah is a broad and level path that stretches from the valley of Tihin (Wadi Tihin) to the valley of al-Qaha (Wadi al-Qaha) and was used by travelers. Al-Guziriana is also known as Al-Ababid and Al-Ababib.
The Al-Qaha Valley is one of the longest valleys in Hijaz, extending more than seventy kilometers from the well of al-Talub (Bi’r al-Talub) in the north to two other valleys in the south. They are named al-Far’ and al-Abwa’ (Wadi al-Abwa’). The valley of al-Qaha was part of the ancient caravan trade route. Darb al-Anbiya was also known as the Path of the Prophets. On one of the rare occasions of the Hijra, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and Abu Bakar al-Sideeq (R) used this busy road on their way to Madeena . All prophets, sages and scholars have used this path throughout history on their journey to Mecca Al Mukarramah.
After leaving the al-Qaha valley, they approached the well of al-Talub (Bir al-Talub), which is known today as al-Hafa. There are two different routes to Madeena from this location at the northern end of the Al-Qaha Valley. Travelers could either go via al-Munsaraf, later known as al-Musayjid, or continue on the caravan trade route via “Shiabu Fayd” and then “Ri al-Akhanqal”. The Prophet and his Companions took the northern route for a while to Al-Munsaraf.
September 16, Friday, the fifth of Rabi’ul Awwal, the Prophet ﷺ and his companions passed through the village of Al-Arj in the valley of Al-Arj. The word ‘arj refers to the zigzag path of this valley. On their way to conquer Mecca in the eighth year of Hijra, a ten thousand strong Muslim army passed through the narrow valley of Al-Arj. Then a strange thing happened. During the journey, the beloved Prophet ﷺ noticed a bitch nursing it’s puppy . It was in the middle of a narrow part of the road. The Prophet ﷺ asked one of his disciples, Jameel Bin Suraqah, to guard it so that she would not be disturbed while the army passed through the valley. He stood guard there until the entire army had crossed.
In later times the Prophet ﷺ passed through it many times and found time at this place for Khailulat or noon nap. Later a masjid was built there.
اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِنٰا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ وَسَلِّمْ
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Saturday, the 6th of Rabi’ul-Awwal, the 17th of September, the sixth day after the departure from the cave of Thour. The Prophetﷺ and his companions left Al-Arj and entered the valley of Reem (Wadi Reem) on foot over Mount Mishirwan on the right (south) side of Mount Rakuba. “Mount Rakuba” is located between the Auf Mountains (Jabel Auf) and Mount Warkhan (Jabal Wargan).
Far from the pass of al-Ghair (Saniyat al-Ghair) the journey continued over Mount Mishirwan.. Mount Mishirwan and Mount Rakuba are so closely connected that it is difficult to determine where one begins and the other ends.
The Warqan Mountain (Jabal Wargan) can be seen from many angles while traveling along the Al Ghair trail. It is a beautiful sight.. In ancient times this mountain was called Mount Hamat (Jabal Hamat). Today a small settlement of Habt is located in the eastern valley of this mountain. During the Farewell Hajj, the Prophetﷺ traveled from Madeena to Mecca through this same mountain, and on the same journey, the Prophetﷺ took rest at “Irqu Llabiy” before Rawha. In both places there are places or masjids where the Prophetﷺ prayed. Here the Prophetﷺ asked his companions. Do you know the name of this mountain? They said: Allah and His Messenger know best. Or we do not know. Then the Prophetﷺ said: “This is Mount Hamt. It is one of the heavenly mountains. May Allah bless us and its people.”
The journey again moved forward. The Prophet’sﷺ caravan entered the valley of al-Khatir (Wadi al-Khatir), which was famous for its many wells. It is a place where travelers and their load-carrying animals gather in abundance.
They then traveled through the valley of al-Ras (Wadi al-Ras), and again advanced along Ri al-Ras, a narrow road in the mountains which they traveled to the valley of Hafr (Wadi Hafr).
It was through this small valley, only six kilometers long, entered to the Reem vally. On their way to Al-Qalaikh, the group continued their journey through the busy corridor that is the Reem Valley. Anyone who has taken the route of Al-Ghair, will travel through this forty-two kilometer long valley, lined with many roadside stalls to help weary travelers. It was here that Ummu Ma’bad’s husband, Abu Ma’bad al-Quza’i, met the Prophetﷺ. After hearing the description of the person who came to the tent, he traveled 170 kilometers to find out that he was a prophet. He met the Prophetﷺ in the Reem valley and immediately accepted Islam. His real name was Aktam bin Abd al-Uzza.
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We are moving through the travel routes of the sixth day of departure from the Thour cave. An incident that occurred in the meantime is as narrated by Imam Bukhari. Urwa narrates from his father. The Prophetﷺ met a group of traders on the way, coming from Syria under the leadership of Zubair(R). He dressed the Prophetﷺ in a beautiful white robe. He came aiming to meet the Prophetﷺ or rather he set out with the intention of Umrah. He gave the clothes to Abu Bakar(R) which he had brought from Sham. He and the Prophetﷺ wore clothes brought from Sham.
Narrated Anas bin Malik(R) from a man from the tribe of Aslam who said: The Prophetﷺ and Sideeq(R) passed by our camels at Juhfa while migrating to Madeena. Then the Prophetﷺ asked, “Whose camels are these?” Those present said, “It belongs to a man from the tribe of Aslam.” Then the Prophetﷺ said to his friend, keeping in mind, the idea of safety, which is the meaning of the word “Aslam”. ‘Insha Allah we escaped’. The narrator says that my father then came there. He arranged a camel for the Prophetﷺ and a slave for service.
Here we can read one more statement by Imam Baihaqi (R). Qays bin Nu’man says. While the Prophetﷺ and Sideeq(R) were secretly traveling to Madeena, they met a slave shepherd on the way. They asked him, “Do you have any milk?” He said, no. All of them are milkless. Even so, bring one of them here. A goat was brought near. The goat was tied. The Prophetﷺ stroked it’s udder and milk came out. Abu Bakar(R) came with a bowl. He drank first, then the shepherd, and then the Prophetﷺ drank himself. Then the shepherd asked the Prophetﷺ, who are you? I have never seen someone like this before? The Prophetﷺ said. If I tell you about it, can you keep it as a secret ? He said, yes. The Prophetﷺ said, I am the Messenger of Allah, Prophet Muhammad(ﷺ). Aren’t you the person the Quraysh say there is someone who claims to be ‘Sabee’?. Yes, they just say so. “I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah and that what you present, is true”. What you did can only happen from a prophet.
As the journey progressed, another thought dawned on the Prophetﷺ. When approaching Madeena, what should do to distract the people so that they do not know that this is the prophet passing by? Lying is not the way of prophets. Then what will do?. Abu Bakar(R) thought of a method. The Prophetﷺ was asked to sit in the back seat of the vehicle. If someone asks who are you, Sideeq will say I am ‘Baghi’ or a misguided person. If asked who is the person with you, he will say ‘Hadi’ or one who show the straight way. The intention is that I am a sinner and the one with me is the guide to my success. Those who listen will think that this is a misleaded traveler and a guide behind. Imam Bukhari cites. When the Prophetﷺ came to Madeena, Sideeq(R) was in the front of the vehicle and the Prophetﷺ in the back seat. Abu Bakar(R) was an old man in appearance. The Prophetﷺ was like a youth. Then someone asked, who are you? Abu Bakar(R) as replied determined before.
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On Sunday, September 18th, Rabi ul-Awwal seven entered, the seventh day of the journey from the Cave of Thour. After the group left the valley of Reem, they went to al-Jatjath and traveled through Ri al-Zahwa. They passed through the Al-Khalaiq area as it was not a busy road like the caravan trade route. This area is also called Abyar al-Mashi or the Well of the Pedestrians.
The Prophet and his companions continued their journey through the valley of al-Aqeeq (Wadi al-Aqeeq), a unique valley of Madeena. Ibn Zabala narrates on the authority of Amir bin Sa’ad. Once the Prophetﷺ called his beloved wife after coming back from Aqeeq Valley. Oh Ayisha we are coming from Aqeeq. How good the place and how good the water!. This is also the meeqat for the pilgrims from Madeena. Also called Abyar Ali or the well of Ali Meeqat on the way to Mecca .
Then he traveled along the route of al-Sabi (Tariq al-Sabi’ ) leading to Quba.
After leaving al-Qalaiq, also passed through the area known as Bi’ru Shaddad or the Well of Shaddad.
Later the beloved Prophetﷺ and Abu Bakar Al Sideeq camped at Al Jatjatha for the night. They made their last camp before entering Quba, 16 km south of Hamra Al Asad mountain. At that time there was a village in al-Jatjatha, where prominent families of Bani Abdullah bin al-Zubair such as Hamza, Ubad and Thabit lived. The Prophetﷺ prayed there. Later a masjid was built here. Meanwhile, there is a story of Sa’ad bin Ubadah to read. He says.
After making agreement with the Prophetﷺ at Aqaba in Mecca, he went to Halar Maut in Yemen for some purposes. He was on his way back after fulfilling all his needs. He rested there. While sleeping, he was startled by a sound. It was some lines of poetry.
“Aba Amrin tawabani suhudu Wa Raha Nnawamu Vanqataal Hujudu’
The idea goes like this. Abu Amr, waking up has tired me. Sleep has ended. Another voice sounded. O Khargab, your tiredness should end. Among the miracles, the greatest miracle has happened between Mecca and Yatrib. Then he asked, O Sahib, what happened?. ‘The Prophet of Peace has been assigned to mankind with the best word. That Prophetﷺ has been expelled from Mecca to Yathrib, the land of dates and hills. When it dawned, I was thinking about the dream, and there were two snakes lying dead. This is the only way I knew that the Prophetﷺ had migrated to Madeena.
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The migration is nearing its destination. On Monday, September 19, the eighth of Rabi’ul-Awwal. The Prophet ﷺ and his entourage had breakfast at Al-Jatjatha, and then began the last day of Hijrah by traveling northeast along the road towards Quba, or Tariq al-Sabi. In front of them was Hamra al-Asad (Jabal Hamra al-Asad), 940 meters above sea level. The Red Mountain was the encampment of the Prophetﷺ and his army following the Battle of Uhud in 3 AH 625 CE. After the retreat of the Meccan army from Mount Uhud, the Prophet ﷺdecided to pursue them to ensure that they had no chance to regroup and return. The day after the battle, the Prophet ﷺ led his army out of Madeena and camped for three days on Mount Hamra al-Asad. Their camp was strategically located along the main road to Mecca ready to meet the unreturned Meccan forces.
The group then traveled through the Khaq (Raudat Khaq) grassland. A letter was secretly given to a woman traveling to Mecca in 630 CE, 8 AH revealing the Prophet’sﷺ plan to take a large army to Mecca. Angel Gibreel informed the Prophet ﷺ about this deception. Ali, Zubair and Miqdad (R) were told to go to the meadow of Khaq and ask this woman for the letter. When they saw her, though she denied the letter first , finally gave it to them. We can still visit the site of the old Khaq plantation. Recently this writer had the opportunity to travel through it.
When they approached Madeena al-Munawwara, the group traveled through al-Zabi route. This road leads to the district of al-Usbah, the residences of the Bani Unaif, and the final destination of Quba. Later, the road was called Tariq or Darb al-Jussa.
Next the journey approached Quba. They moved to the east of Mount Ayr (Jabal Ayr) and then north to Quba. Mount Ayr is one of the borders of Madeena Haram (Haram al-Madinah al-Munawwarah).
Al Usba was one of the first neighborhoods visited by the Prophet ﷺ on his way to Quba along with the neighborhood of Bani Unaif District. It was also where the emigrants from Mecca first stayed. Also located in this district are the Masjid of Light (Masjid al-Nur) and the Well of Bani Jahjaba (Bi’r Bani Jahjaba), also known as Al-Hajim (Bi’r al-Hajim).
Before reaching Quba, the travelers passed by the vicinity of Bani Unaif (Diyar Bani Unaif), where the Masjid of Bani Unaif (Masjid Bani Unaif), also known as the Masjid of Musabih (Masjid Musabih), was built here. Historical records show that the Prophet ﷺ came to this region to visit Talha bin Al-Baraa when he fell ill.
Ever since it was known that the Prophet ﷺ had left Mecca , Yathrib or Madeena was ready to receive the Prophet ﷺ. From the day, the people of Madeena knew that the Prophet ﷺ started from Mecca , they would walk in group to the border of Madeena to receive . They would usually come and stand at the entrance to Madeena …and look towards Mecca on the hill until the sun warms up….
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Referring to the entry of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ into Madeena , a narration narrated by Imam Ahmad and others can be read as follows. When the Prophet ﷺ reached the border of Madeena , he sent people to his family, Banu Najjar. They are the uncles of the Prophet ﷺ through Abdul Muttalib’s mother. They came in traditional way wearing weapons. They said to the beloved Prophet ﷺ and his companions. ‘Enter as leaders and safe’ . The Prophet ﷺ mounted on his camel named Qaswa . People traveled on foot and in vehicles on both sides. Allahu Akbar, the Messenger of Allah has arrived .. Allahu Akbar, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ has arrived . They were shouting with fervour and excitement. Children and attendants climbed on the roofs of the houses and shouted. ‘The Messenger of Allah has come to us…’ Anas (R) says that we also chanted ‘Takbeer’ and moved in the direction where the others were going. Nothing special could be seen . We also went forward as others did. After a while, he stood under the cover of a wall for a while. It was for the reception from ‘the Ansars’. It was not late. About five hundred Ansars came. They said, “Come in safe and as leaders.” The whole Madeena was shaken. The people of Madeena stood together. Women asked each other from the houses, where is the beloved Prophetﷺ ? Where is the Prophetﷺ?. Madeena had never seen a scene like that before or after.
Anas (R) says in the narration of Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud that when the Prophet ﷺ was brought to Madeena , the Ethiopian people performed a kind of entertainment with their weapons. The people, young and old, prayed together.
Everyone is familiar with the beautiful poetry recited by the people of Madeena at that time.
Twalaal Badru Alaina Min Saniyatil Wada’i
Wajaba Shukru alaina ma da’a Lillahi Daee
Ayyuhal Mabuoosu Feena Ji’ata bil Amril Mutae
“The moon rose on to us from Saniyyatul wadae
And it is our duty to thank
As far as the caller to the prayer call ”
You came with a code to follow ”
Upon the arrival of the Prophet ﷺ, the whole of Madeena became illuminated. Abu Khaysama testifies that he had never experienced a day so bright and full of influence in Madeena like that day . On the way through there, every household invited the Prophet ﷺ to their homes. Some of them detailed about the facility in their house and cordially invited the the Prophet ﷺ to their house. The Prophet ﷺ said to all: Leave my vehicle on its way. It has been commanded to kneel where it should kneel. I will dismount where my khaswa kneels.
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This is a simple reading combining the various narrations referring to the entry of the Prophetﷺ into Madeena. The Prophetﷺ stayed in Quba for four days from Monday. On the twelfth of Rabi’ul Awwal, Friday, September 23, the Prophetﷺ continued his journey from Quba. Qaswa’ knelt in the same place where Madeena Masjid situates today.
Among the vehicles used by the Prophetﷺ, Qaswa’ was a camel with many features. It was born in the campsite of the Bani Khashir tribe in Arabia. Abu Bakar (R) owned this female camel. When it was four years old, the Prophetﷺ bought it for four hundred dirhams. It was red in color mixed with black and white. If the Divine Message or Wahy came while on the vehicle, it would feel heavy on the vehicle and it would not be able to move forward. But Qaswa’ could bear it. Qaswa’ would become first in any competitions. It had not even once shown tenacity to the Prophetﷺ. The Hijra was also on this camel. That is how the Prophetﷺ said that this vehicle has a command from Allah and to leave it. It knelt at the place where the Masjid Dunnabawi is located in Madeena. Specifically Qaswa’ knelt where the mimbar is situated. The mimbar is platform and a seat with fixed steps to perform the special ‘Khutuba’ which addresses the people. The Prophet ﷺ traveled in this vehicle to Badr and at the time of entry to Mecca . This camel was a rare presence that had the good fortune to be in constant company with the Prophetﷺ. It sensed the demise of the Prophet ﷺ. It did not drink water or food for thirteen days. The lucky vehicle, which shed tears and was sad, died on the fifteenth day.
History has comments about the days when the Prophetﷺ left Mecca and reached Madeena. He left Mecca on the last Thursday night of the month of Safar. Spent three days in the cave of Thour. He left the cave on Sunday night or the first of Rabi’ul Awwal. Reached Madeena on the eighth of Rabi’ul Awwal. This is clear from the most authentic narration.
Upon reaching Madeena, the Prophetﷺ performed some special prayers. He said, “This is our home, if Allah wills it.” Then he recited the twenty-ninth verse of Al-Mu’minun chapter of the Holy Qur’an. The idea is as follows: “Say: O Allah send me down to the most blessed place! You are the One who sends down to the best place.”
He said, “O Allah, I have reached the land dearest to you from the land dearest to me. Please bless us!”. Shower the similar blessings here upon us the blessings which bestowed on your beloved Prophet Khalil Ibraheem in Mecca.
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