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In the early days of Islam, the Qibla was Baitul Muqaddas in Palestine. When the Prophetﷺ was in Mecca, he prayed facing Baitul Muqaddas. The Ka’aba was still in front of the Prophetﷺ. In other words, even when turning towards the direction of Baitul Muqaddas, the Ka’aba stood in front. The situation continued for more than sixteen months.
The Prophetﷺ liked to move to the Ka’aba, the Qibla of his forefather Prophet Ibrahim(A). Moreover, the Jews mocked at the Prophetﷺ saying: ‘Muhammadﷺ is against us. But he also turn to our Qibla.’ Therefore, the Prophetﷺ used to pray a lot to get the Ka’aba as Qibla. In the middle of Rajab in the second year of Hijra, there was a command from Allah determining the Ka’aba as Qibla.
Imam Muslim(R) narrated. Bara’bin Azib said: ‘We turned to Baitul Muqaddas with the Prophetﷺ and prayed for sixteen or seventeen months. Then we turned towards the Ka’aba.
Ibn Abbas says: When the Prophetﷺ was in Mecca he prayed facing Baith al-Muqaddas. The Ka’aba was in front of the Prophetﷺ. After the hijra to Madeena, remained in the same condition for sixteen months and then turned to the Ka’aba.
While in Mecca, when he turned towards Baitul Muqaddas, he had the Ka’aba in between. That’s why both qiblas were received that day. After reaching Madeena, it was not possible to pray focussing both Qiblas together. That is why the Prophetﷺ used to pray constantly and look at the sky in expecting revelation about the Qibla change. This is how Allah introduces the hundred and forty-fourth verse of Surat al-Baqarah:
“Oh Prophet, we see your face turning towards the sky. So We turn you to a Qiblah you like. From now on, turn towards Masjid al-Haram. Wherever you are, you must turn your face towards it”
After receiving the command to change the Qibla towards the Ka’aba, it was “Asar prayer” that the Prophetﷺ prayed for the first time. Those who were praying towards Baitul Muqaddas in other places, when they got the knowledge about the change of Qibla, they also turned towards the Ka’aba during the prayer. In the hadeeth narrated by Imam Bukhari, it can be read as follows: A man prayed Asar with the Prophetﷺ. Then he walked and came to a group of Ansars. Then they were praying “Asar” and he said: “Here is the one who prayed with the Prophetﷺ as a witness, the Prophetﷺ has turned towards the Ka`aba and performed the prayer. So they turned towards the Ka’aba while they were performing Ruku’ in the Asar prayer.
The people in Quba’u are informed about the Qibla change on the next day at Subh. They also turned towards the Ka’aba in prayer.
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Imam Bukhari(R) quotes as Ibn Umar(R) says, When the people of Quba’u were performing the Fajr prayer, a man came to them and said: Verily, when the Qur’an was presented to the Prophetﷺ tonight, he was instructed to make the Ka’aba, the direction of the Qibla or the direction of prayer. Then they turned towards Mecca while praying. At first they prayed facing Sham. So they circled towards the Ka’aba.
Masjid al-Qiblataini or the Masjid of Double Qibla is a symbol of the memories associated with the redetermination of the Qibla. This masjid was also known as Masjid Banu Salama. The Quranic verse of Qibla determination was revealed when the Prophetﷺ was performing Asar or evening prayer in this masjid of the Banu Salama. In the said prayer, the Prophetﷺ turned towards the Ka’aba. According to it, this masjid was later known as “Qiblalataini”, which means a masjid that prayed towards both Qiblah. For centuries, there were two mihrabs or a place specially built for the imam, leading the prayer. Now there is a Mihrab on the Ka’aba side and an image of the ‘Muswallah’ on the old Qibla side.
Banu Salama: The Prophetﷺ prayed there on that day when he had accepted the invitation of Ummu Basheer of the tribe and came to the feast. Ibn Najjar has quoted Uthman bin Muhammad as saying that it was the luhar prayer or midday prayer.
Ibn Umar, a prominent companion, used to go there and pray there, considering it to be the place known as the place where the Prophetﷺ prayed. All the pilgrims who come to Madeena visit this masjid and pray there.
This masjid was developed and rebuilt at various stages during and after the time of Umar bin Abdul Azeez, known as the fifth caliph. The developments of King Abdul Azeez in 1931 and King Fahd in 1987 are significant. The masjid, which used to be only four hundred and twenty-five square meters in the past, now has facilities for more than two thousand people to pray inside and in the courtyard.
Allah informed the Prophetﷺ that after the change of Qibla, the disbelievers, hypocrites and Jews would ask, ‘Why did you change from the existing Qibla?’ Such is the idea of the hundred and forty-second verse of Surat al-Baqarah.
“Foolish people may ask why they were moved from the side they were facing (in prayer). (O Prophet,) Say: To Allah belongs the East and the West. He guides whom He wills to a straight path”.
It happened just as Allah said. As the qibla changed, various kinds of talks began to be heard. The Muslims said: “We have heard. And we have obeyed.”They are the ones who have been guided by Allah.
But the polytheists said: “It seems that they will return to our old religion just as Muhammadﷺ returned to our Qiblah. Muhammadﷺ returned to it because our Qibla is the truth.”
The Jews said: “Prophet Muhammad has changed from the qiblah of the previous prophets. If Muhammadﷺ was the true Prophet, he would have prayed facing the Qibla of the previous Prophets.”
The hypocrites said: “Prophet Muhammad does not know which way to pray. If the part that was turned in the first, is correct, that correctness has now been abandoned by Prophet Muhammadﷺ. If the Qibla that has now turned is correct, then the Prophet Muhammad was in the wrong.”
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Generally speaking, the enemies were accusing that the foundation of the religion has collapsed due to the change of Qibla. The Qur’an does not give any explanation for these accusations or their proponents. Instead, answered all of them together with one sentence. ‘To Allah belong the East and the West, or all the directions. There is no particular direction that makes it necessary to turn to this direction except that if He commands to turn to that direction by making a certain position the qibla’.
When the accusations came from many directions, some of the weak believers got worried. Some started saying, ‘What is the status of the prayer we performed when we turned to Baitul Muqaddas? What is the condition of the people who died from us while turning towards Baitul Muqaddas and praying?’ Then the one hundred and forty-third verse of chapter al-Baqaarah was revealed. The idea reads: ” And thus We have made you a good nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Apostle may be a bearer of witness to you; and We did not make that which you would have to be the Qibla but that We might distinguish him who follows the Apostle from him who turns back upon his heels, and this was surely hard except for those whom Allah has guided aright; and Allah was not not going to make your faith to be fruitless; Verily, Allah is Most Kind and Merciful to mankind.”
There are great principles involved in fixing the Baitul Muqaddas as the Qiblah first and then changing it to the Ka’aba. It was a test for Muslims, Jews and hypocrites at the same time. It was a test that Allah conducted on His slaves to distinguish good from bad and to know who are the true followers of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
Allah intended by enforcing this law to remind the people that they should take the commands of the Prophet ﷺ in every sense. Because the enemy’s allegations were so strong. The propaganda is that the religion of Muhammad ﷺ was not revealed by Allah, but was created by the Prophet himself, that is why it changes now and then without stability, and those who join him will suffer loss. Some people got caught up in this evil propaganda and left Islam. To stand firm at such a stage required firm faith. It was a stage to realize that.
There are many lessons for the faithful from the incident of changing the Qibla. Let us read some of them.
One: A particular direction is designated as Qibla not because Allah is in that direction or because He has a special relationship with that direction. Unity of the community and convenience are only reasons for it. The idea of the one hundred and forty-second verse of the Al-Baqara chapter is this. Say: To Allah belong the east and the west; He guides whomever He wills to a straight path. Let us also read the idea of the one hundred and fifteenth verse. To Allah belong the east and the west. Wherever you turn and pray, there you can face Allah. Allah is Al mighty and All-Knowing.
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Two. If Allah and His Messenger decide on a matter, the believers should be ready to fully submit to it. The duty of the believers is to accept what Allah and His Messenger have commanded without questioning or criticizing. The faith of those who do not, is not true faith. The concept of the thirty-sixth verse of Surat al-Ahzab can be read as follows: “When Allah and His Messenger have decided on a matter, no believing man or woman can have an opinion of their own . Whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he has clearly gone astray.” The concept of the fifty-first verse of Al Noor Chapter. “When called to Allah and His Messenger to judge between them, the believers will say: We have heard and obeyed. They are the victorious.”
Three: This incident proves that apart from the the holy Qur’an, the Prophet ﷺ received revelation from Allah. In the one hundred and forty-third verse of Al-Baqara, it has been said that “We designated as the Qiblah the direction from which they had turned until now, only to distinguish those who follow the Messenger and those who turn away.”
In other words, there was a command of Allah to make Baitul Muqddas as Qibla. But there is no such command in the Qur’an. Then it is clear that the Prophet ﷺ used to receive messages from Allah apart from the holy Qur’an. Also look at the idea of the hadeeth narrated by Imam Abu Dawood (R).Miqdam bin Ma’dee karib says. The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘Know; Verily, I have been given the Book (Qur’an) and one like that ‘.
Four: This is a proof of how much Allah considers the will and interest of His Habeeb. The expression ‘Qiblatan tarlaha…’ makes it clear. Prayer is a worship that should be performed only for the pleasure of Allah. In reality, its direction should be determined by His will and authority. But Allah determined the direction by considering the yearning and interest of His Habeeb. This incident is also an indication of the greatness of the status that Allah bestowed to the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ.
By considering this concept , the word ‘Qibla of the Qibla’ is applied to the Prophet ﷺ. After going to Madeena and greeting the Prophet ﷺ, there is a discussion among the scholars as to whether one should face the holy Ka’aba or face the Prophet ﷺ while making dua to Allah. Great people including Imam Malik opined that it is to the Prophet ﷺ. Actually, if you read the said question in this way, the problem is solved. Should we turn towards the House of Allah? Or should we turn to Allah’s Habeeb, who taught us the greatness of the house, who is more greater than that holy house? It is a curious sight that the semicircular mihrab-like portion of the Holy Ka’aba faces the direction of Madeena. In any case, the argument that when visiting the Prophet ﷺ, one should turn towards the Ka’aba, otherwise it is a sin, is not authentic.
اَللّٰهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى سَيِّدِنٰا مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهِ وَسَلِّم
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The Prophetﷺ systematically organized the domestic matters in Madeena. About one hundred and ninety families from Mecca were systematically united with the families of Madeena. With that, in the first year of entering Madeena, about four hundred heads of families became members of the social structure of the Islamic system. The report that gives a preliminary picture of the total population at that time can be read as follows. Hudaifatubin al-Yaman says. The Prophetﷺ asked us to prepare a list of those who accepted Islam. We prepared a list of 1500 persons. This intervention could be considered as the first census in Islamic society.
There were Jews in Mecca during the time of Prophetﷺ’s arrival and at time of demise. Islam had a clear view of association and cooperation with them.
The Jews of Madeena were of three tribes. Namely Qainuqau, Banu Nalir and Banu Quraila, the first tribe allied with the Khazraj, the base tribe of Madeena, and the third tribe with the Aous tribe. Just as the Aus and Khazraj tribes fought between themselves, there must have been civil wars between the Jews. That is why they made an alliance with two Arab tribes who were hostile to each other. Linguistically speaking, the word ‘Qainukha’ means goldsmith. ‘Nalir’ was a name that evoked the pleasantness of leaves or agriculture.
‘Quraila’ is a kind of plant used by tanners. It may be assumed that these names allude to the chief occupations of these tribes; At least this may have been the case during the migration to Madeena. And because these Jewish tribes were traders, these Jewish tribes imported and sold food items. They also worked as bankers
There were relatively few Christians in Madeena. Abu Amir of the tribe of Aous is said to have converted to Christianity and became a priest but his son Hanlala was a staunch Muslim. He was martyred in the battle of Uhud and has the title of ‘the one who bathed by the angels – “ghazeel malaiqah”. Abu Amir, who was hostile to Islam, left Madeena with about fifteen of his followers and joined the Meccans in the battle of Uhud. Losing hope, he later settled in a Byzantine territory. Taking advantage of the opportunity of the Prophetﷺ to send an army to Tabuk against the Byzantines, Abu Amir made the hypocrites in Madeena believe that the Byzantine army would attack Madeena. He suggested that the hypocrites build a mosque of hostility right next to the Quba Masjid in Madeena to gather there. When the Prophetﷺ came to know about this, he asked to demolish that building as part of internal security. Abu Amir died two years later in the ‘land of Heraclius’. These are the only things to record about Christianity in Madeena. It can be said that followers of other religions were completely absent in pre-Islamic Madeena.
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Politics in Madeena did not overtake tribalism. There was not even what could be called a city-state. Each tribe, whether Arab or Jewish, was an independent unit. They obeyed no one but their chief. No specific criteria or system was known for determining these tribal chiefs. Each tribe will have independent places to gather. Sometimes prominent people gather to discuss matters of urgent importance. In summer, gatherings are organized for fun and entertainment. For Banunalir Jews each tribe had a common treasury of property or “kanz”. All tribes should contribute to this. Expenditures for unexpected things like war will be taken out of this. An informal social security system also existed among the Arabs. If a person commits a crime or is required to pay financial compensation, it is his tribe, not the offender, who must pay. There was no central authority controlling all the tribes. If the offender and the victim are from different tribes, a decision is reached through discussion between the chiefs. However, things will be in favor of whoever has the power. He did not have a vision of equal rights
However, things will be in favor of whoever has the power. There was no view of equal rights. If the slain belonged to a weaker tribe, the reparation received by his relatives was half that of the stronger tribes. There was no rule or provision for this. The method is a judgment made by a person determined by a group of people. Sometimes it is based on traditional practices without any consideration.
Tribalism was basically a narrow society. Tribalism, self-righteousness, and anti-reformism were all present in it. But they also had some basic characteristics. They were team spirit, fighting spirit, hospitality, love thoughts and morale.
Myths and legends influenced their expressions. Folktales, and proverbs controlled the course of their gatherings.
At that time there were forty-four tribes in Madeena that differed in number and size. The Prophetﷺ had to perform the task of uniting all of them in a common stand.
The Prophetﷺ faced a diverse community in Madeena, including Arab tribes, Jewish people, Muslims, Christians, and others. Others included the Majoos, the Magi and the Sourashtra.
It would be interesting to make a reading in the light of the provinces where these different groups geographically inhabited.
Banu Mudlaj, Banu Ghifar, Khuza’a, Aslam, Mustalaq, Musaina, and Shanua were the tribes that lived in the western part of Madeena.
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Among the above, Banu Samura and Banu Mudlij were branches of the famous ‘Kinana’ tribe. By the third year of Hijra, many people from the said tribes came to Islam. Gial bin Suraqah, Amr bin Umayya:, Alqama: bin Mujasiz, Umayya bin Quwailid are among the prominent ones. Gifar tribe was a branch of Banu Samura. Tha tribe famous follower Abu Darr. He and his brothers Unais and Abu’Rumh and about half of the tribe had accepted Islam before the Hijra. The rest of the people came to Islam after the Hijra. Another sub-tribe of the Kinana, the Jasima, fully accepted Islam by the eighth year of the Hijra. The tribes of Aslam, Khuza’a and Banul Mustalaq, which had roots everywhere in Hijaz, came to Islam even before the Hijra. At the time of the conquest of Mecca four hundred of the Banu Aslam, the branches of the Quza’a tribe, and five hundred of the Banu Ka’ab, became Islamic. Musaina and Juhaina were two other prominent tribes in the western province of Madeena. They had already the experience of living with the Ansari tribes of Aous and Khazraj, and therefore they had the opportunity to know Islam and accept Islam at an early age. Five of Juhaina and one from Musaina participated in the Badr campaign in the second year of the Hijra. Adeeb bin Abi Zagba, Samr bin Amr, Bas Bas bin Amr, Aswim bin Umair, Wadi’at bin Amr and Ziyad bin Ka’ab were the brave ones.
Many historians recorded the history of coming to Islam in groups from the tribes. During the Macca conquest, there were between eight hundred and one thousand people from this tribe. Among them there were around fifty to one hundred cavalry.
The Azd ans Shanub tribes lived in the western province of Madeena. They accepted the Prophetﷺ even before the Hijra. Among them, Samad bin Sa’alaba, the most prominent of them, came to Mecca to perform Umrah in 613 AD. There he met the Prophetﷺ and accepted Islam. Then they were convinced of Islam through his constant efforts. Their allied tribe ‘Banu Daws’ came to Islam as a continuation of his effort. By the 7th year of Hijra, the entire Daus tribe in Mecca and Madeena had accepted Islam. The conversion of famous Daws leader, Thufail ibn Amr and his son, Amr, led the Daws people enter to Islam in groups. Abu Hurairah (R) who is the companion, who narrated the most number of Hadeeth, is from the Daws tribe. Abu Rawaha and Sa’ad bin Abi Subaba, are from the said tribe.
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We read about the tribes west of Madeena and the changes among them. Now let’s look at the conditions in the eastern provinces of Mecca and Madeena .In this area there were twenty-four tribal communities.
1. Banu Khuzaima
2. Banu Asad
3. Banu Hudayl
4. Banu Saqeefa
5. Banu Jusham
6 Sa’ad bin Bakr.
7. Banu Doodan
8 Banu Ganam
13. Banu Kilab
14 Banu Suwaa
15 Banu Ashtha
17. Banu Murra
18 Banu Fasar
20. Banu Abd
21. Banu Hawasin
22. Banu Qais Aylan
23. Banu Harib
24. Banu Qais.
These were the names of the tribes.
Some of the tribes like Banu As’ad had marriage relation with the Quraish . Because of that twenty men and eight women from their group accepted Islam before the Hijrah. They also passed the light to the Banu Ghatfan, Banu Twayy, Banu Sa’alab and Banu Dudan tribes who were in harmony with the Asad tribe.
Here are the names of some prominent people who embraced Islam from the Eastern Province: Lirarubinul Azwar, Auf bin Malik, Masuood bin Abdul Qari, Hussain bin Kharija, Uyaina bin Hisna, Ubaid bin Sa’alab, Malik bin Halrami, Wabis bin Ma’abd,
Some tribes approached Islam with extreme hostility. Because of that, military operations and blockades had to be carried out against them. According to it, twenty-eight movements were carried out targeting such tribes.
The northern province of Madeena was also inhabited by various tribes. Prominent among them were Banu Khuza’a, Banu Bali, Banu Bahra, Banu Usra, Banu Saad, Banu Ghassan, Banu Juzam, Banu Kalb, Banu Sinna, and Banu Sa’ad Husaym. The main ones were Banu Ghassan and Banu Khusa’a. Banu Khusaa had seven sub-tribes. Their names were Sinna, Uzra, Mahara, Juhaina, Bahra, Bali and Sa’d Husaym. They had influence throughout Hijaz. Amr bin Az’s mother was also from this tribe. With the advent of Islam, all the above-mentioned tribes were unified. Abdubin Muttalib, Abdurrahmanbin Udais, Abuzibab, Twalhatbin Barra, Abdullahbin Ziyad, Saheel bin Rafi, Kaab bin Ujra, and Abdullahbin Aslam are prominent people who accepted Islam from this province.
The presence of Islam and individuals in this province played a major role in beautifying and developing the political map of Madeena. Uthman bin Affan’s wife Naila and his brother Sabiu bin Farafiza are from this province.
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The attitudes of the tribes of the southern province also had a great influence on the development of Madeena as a nation and capital. More than fifteen tribes can be read from the history of this region.
1 Banu Zabeed
2 Banu Murad
3 Banu Ruha
4 Banu Ans
5 Banu Sad’ah
6 Banu Mashij
7 Banu Naqah
8 Banu Qasam
9 Banu Khawlan
10 Banu Bajila
11 Banu Nahda
12 Banu Hamdan
13 Banu Ashar
14 Banu Kin
15 Banu Azda
Among them, the Islamization of the Banu Ashar tribe increased the momentum of the Islamic presence in the eastern province. A group of sixty people led by the prominent companion Abu Musa Al Ash’ari came to Madeena and embraced Islam. He was accompanied by his brothers Abu Burda and Abu Ruhman.
With the spread of Islam in the eastern province, the Himyari dominance that existed there, disappeared. The Himyarites were clan-centric rulers whose capital was “Zifar” From this province many brave men later joined the side of Islam.
We have examined the tribes in the four main directions of Madeena and their transitions. In addition to this, the isolated inland, remote and scattered tribal communities were organized under the auspices of Islam or became part of a wider national concept, the main groups of them were in eastern Iraq, Oman and the Persian sea coast. Their influence in the economic and social activities of the Arab subcontinent was already there. Banu Hanif, Banutaghlib,Banu Tameem, Banu Wail, Banu Shayban, Banu Abdul Qays tribes are important among them. All these tribes were sub-tribes of the main tribe Banu Rabeea.
All these were organized through the correspondence and military movements of the Prophetﷺ. Sumamat bin Usal’s conversion to Islam led to a remarkable change in this region. Sumamat, who was captured in a clash in Najd, was taken care of by the Prophetﷺ in Madeena and had the opportunity to experience life in Madeena firsthand. He reached Mecca and performed Umra. Then he reached his native place, Yamama. He stopped the grains given to the Meccans who were in hostility with the Prophetﷺ. The Meccans faced a shortage of grain. They complained to the Prophetﷺ. The Prophetﷺ asked Sumama to restore the export of grain.
Banu Tamim is another tribe that should be mentioned here. They used to rule in the land of Bahrain and Oman.
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The Banu Tameem tribes were formerly fire worshippers. They were self-governing in various parts. This tribe embraced Islam relatively late. But they contributed many prominent personalities to the Islamic society. Waqid bin Abdillah, Safwan bin Safwan, Safwan bin Malik, Khabbab bin Al Arat, Hanlalat bin Al Rabeea and Saad bin Amr Al Tameemi are among them.
Wa’il tribe and their acceptance of Islam should be mentioned here. They came to Islam in connection with the Macca victory. Banu Shaiban, Banu Ans, Banu Bakar, Banu Taghlib are the branches of this tribe. Amir bin Rabeea, Furrat bin Hayyan, Al Jiliadi Bin Sharaheel are from this province.
We have come to know some important historical stages of the development of Islamic culture. This is one of the various chapters on the Prophet Muhammadﷺ being a historical figure. A reading of the historical conviction that he is not a legend or a mere character: Put forward a precise idea. Inculcate it systematically. Overcome any crisis that comes before it. When announced the ultimate realities , ready to sacrifice property, land and everything for it. And precise policies and guidelines for those who stand by it. The followers become enlightened by knowing the value of the leader. The leader stand as their shelter and comfort at any point. The change made in one country spread rapidly to other countries. Those pathways would become a definite community of ideas and part of the culture, preserved beyond the millennia. Thus the Prophetﷺ is emerging in history through all the necessary steps in the sequence of revival.
There needs to be some definite guidelines to advance a section of Madeena and its surroundings as a nation.. because this is a pluralistic society. There are believers,atheists and hypocrites. The same approach line is not applicable for everyone. It is not the policy of Islam to make everyone Muslim by force. That’s how the Prophetﷺ came to think about a written policy. It was entering as a bright line on the global political map. To unify into a nation, the tribes and peoples who were divided and fighting over trivial matters for purely economic vested interests. Prepare a constitution for it. The Prophetﷺ is entering into that task. Let’s get to know the Madeena Charter as its fulfillment.
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The declaration of rights drawn up by the Prophetﷺ in Madeena is referred to as a ‘document’ (kitab). As well as having the power to shape people’s lives, this charter is also significant that it was ‘written down’. The Holy Prophetﷺ who met Allah, Who taught him to write with a pen, practically marked the importance of pen and writing in human life. Eight times in this charter, he himself introduces the document as ‘Saheefat’, ‘written document’ or ‘paper’. The holy Qur’an has referred to the books of Prophets, Moosa and Ibraheem(A) with the same term.
Let’s read ‘the charter’ which consists of fifty-two paragraphs including five sub-sections.
1. This is a document applicable to the Messenger of Allah, Muhammadﷺ, the Muslims of Mecca, the believers of Yathrib, and those who follow them and those who cooperate and struggle with them.
2. All the aforesaid shall be treated as members of the same community
3. The Quraish who came from Mecca should pay ‘Dia’ or compensation and ‘Fida’ or ransom according to the existing custom for any losses other than murder or mutilation that may occur among them. They should treat the criminals and prisoners under their authority with justice and benevolence.
4. The people of Banu Aouf tribe shall pay ‘Diya’ and ‘Fida’ according to existing custom for loss of life, mutilation and other losses that may occur among them. Criminals and prisoners under their jurisdiction should be treated fairly and kindly.
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Banu Haris, Banu Sa’ida, Banu Jusham, Banu Najjar, Banu Amr, Banu Nabeet, Banu Aws should give ‘Diya’ and ‘Fida’ according to the existing custom for the loss of life, mutilation and other losses that may occur among them. Criminals and prisoners under their jurisdiction should be treated fairly and kindly.
1 2. No one shall be protected without adequate ransom or compensation . Persons shall not treat each other without justice and kindness.
13. Devout believers will be against corruption, injustice, grudge and other sins.
14. A believer should not kill another believer for an unbeliever. He should not help an unbeliever against a believer.
15. The protection of Allah surrounds everyone. Everyone should treat his fellow as his own. Believers are brothers and sisters and should protect each other.
16. All equality and assistance shall be accorded to the Jews who are signatories to this treaty, but neither shall the Jews themselves commit blasphemy, nor shall others help their enemies.
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17. The agreement between the believers and the unbelievers must be kept. The ‘well-being’ of the believers is important. If the believers resort to the path of struggle against the violation of the agreement, then the earlier peace agreement cannot be maintained.
18. Fighters should help each other when in trouble.
19. For every drop of blood shed in the way of Allah, the believer is liable to revenge.
20. The community of believers will continue to receive teachings from Allah.
21. Any polytheist in Madeena should not enter into disputes or relations with the Quraish of Mecca in a way that violates the faith.
22. For a person who believes in Allah and the Last Day to help an assailant or give him refuge, is transgression. If he does so, the curse and wrath of Allah will be upon him on the last day. No remedy or compensation will be accepted in this matter.
23. Any differences of opinion shall be forwarded to the final decision of Allah and His Messenger.
24. As long as the Jews fight alongside the Muslims, they must bear a part of the war expenses.
25. The Jewish tribe of Banu Auf is another community like the Muslims. Their religion is their’s and the Muslims have their religion . We should live with them in good manner and co-existence. But if they show injustice or violence, this consideration will not be applied because they have done violence to themselves, their family and their community.
26. The tribe of Banu Najjar will be similar to the tribe of Banu Auf in the above matters. 27 Banu Haris’…28 Banu Sa’idah …29 Banu Jusham..30. Banu Aws ..31. Banu Sa’lab… 32 Banu Jaffna…33 Banu Sutaiba will be similar to Banu Auf in the above matters.
34. The free slaves of the tribe of Sa’alab will also be as stated above
35. The above-mentioned rules shall be followed with close friends among the Jews.
36. No one should engage in war without the consent of Prophet Muhammadﷺ.
36b But if their war is reasonable, it cannot be reversed. No one should be retaliated against without warning or proper understanding.
37. The Muslims and the Jews must find their expenses separately. If any of the factions are attacked, both factions must unite and defend the enemy. They must carry out their missions in harmony with each other. Goodness is the best weapon against all evils.
37b The innocent members of an ally tribe shall not be held responsible for the intentional breaches of the treaty by the leaders.
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38. The Jews should remain with the group until the end of the war and bear their own expenses of war.
39. With the declaration of this treaty, Yathrib become holy land
40. This Agreement guarantees special treatment and security to guests including travelers and strangers. Guests shall not be held liable for offenses committed by natives.
41. Women shall be protected only with the consent of their family or guardians
42. In the condition of any disagreement between the signatories regarding this Agreement, the final decision shall be left to Allah and His Messenger. Care and attention to this contract will lead to a special reward from Allah.
43. Protection should not be given to the polythiests of Mecca and those who help them.
44. Each signatory to the treaty is bound to defend Yathrib against any attack.
45. If the Meccans intend any move with Yathrib, they should make a decision only on the basis of a common understanding.
45b. The Covenant guarantees to each citizen an independent personality and existence within the social circle in which he or she belongs.
46. The Jewish tribes of Aws and their slaves are entitled to the rights accorded to other social groups in this treaty. They are also responsible for the observance of the treaty. Individuals are responsible for their own crimes.
47. This agreement will not protect the aggressors and those who do injustice. The righteous fighters and those who stay in their homes will be equally safe. Allah will always protect the righteous. Allah is All-Knowing. Prophet Muhammadﷺ becomes the last messenger of Allah. From now on, the leadership of Madeena and the last word in the administration of justice will be Prophet Muhammadﷺ.
This declaration of rights first mentions the community of believers formed by the Muslim refugees from Mecca and the indigenous Muslims of Madeena. Then there are the non-Muslim communities who support this centralization and are ready to side with the Muslims if war etc. breaks out. The concept of a single society in which all these are united makes the structure of this Charter perfect, which is different from all other world societies (paragraph 2). The rights of all members shall receive equal consideration, including in situations of war (paragraphs 15, 18, 19). A separate paragraph (16) opens the door to this social system for Jews on the basis of equal justice and mutual assistance.
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The Madeena Charter was a sea change in the execution of justice. Authority was brought to a central structure, while ensuring rights to every individual. The methods that were vested on one person, were rearranged . Every citizen is bound to obey this charter even if it is against his tribe, family or other relatives. No one should give shelter to any trespasser. In case of disputes, the law from Allah will be the basic criterion and the solution will be implemented according to it. Although this constitution added many new points, it was designed to retain what could be included from the traditional methods. This is evidenced by the phrase, “ma’akiluhum al-oola” or as before. A social security system is also being prepared for prisoners of war and those who have to pay reparations for killings etc. If killed or injured, do not take retaliatory measures as before. Now, Muslims are reminded that they have an obligation to help those who find it difficult to pay reparations. Each tribe will have autonomy in this structure. Take for example the Muslim refugees from Mecca . They are from various Arab tribes. Among them were non-Arabs from Abysinia and others. All of them formed a new ‘tribe’. Although they did not have all the rights of real tribes, the Arabs used to incorporate foreigners into their tribe before, albeit to a lesser extent.
It was unheard of before for a large group of people to become such a big tribe. This is probably where the definitions of citizen and country in Islamic political concepts are formed. Country of birth, race, caste, skin color, language, etc were indispensable or contingent dimensions that were used as reasons for civic formation. But Islam, on the other hand, maintains the concept of citizenship in a worldview that includes all human beings. Anyone can voluntarily accept that citizenship. But it comes into existence on the basis of a pact.
The Madeena Charter approached security and defense with peace as the cornerstone. Military service was emphasized as an obligation of every individual. It also stipulates that non-Muslims/ the Quraish should not be given protection under any circumstance, the only group presented as an avowed enemy, because it was a problem affecting only Muslims. Along with that, it is the responsibility of the community of believers to ease the hardships of those who make sacrifices for the sake of Islam.
In this constitution, the idea that the greatest judge would be the Prophet of Allah, Muhammadﷺ, presented a strong leadership.
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The Madeena Charter is regarded as a document that inseparably links material and spiritual life. The community formed in Madeena became the practical form of this idea. Prophet Muhammadﷺ achieved the formation of a centralised state, that was unimaginable in the political landscape of that time.
There are many academic and popular views on this pact in literature. ‘This Charter should not be read as a mere political concept, but as a high level bilateral agreement formed with regard to other communities and their belief’. This is the opinion of the English scholar, Bernard Lewis. W. Watt has observed that “the charter shows how to unite the likes and dislikes among different communities in a general perspective”. “The Charter is the first memorandum of understanding in history to demonstrate how individuals and their skills can be utilized in the overall construction of a society.” This observation was made by William John Andon. But take a look at William Moore’s opinion, a man of Orientalist ideas and critical thinker of the history of the Prophet ﷺ. “Many societies and rulers have passed before Muhammadﷺ. But no one has presented such a precise record of the prosperity and peace of his own society.”
Who can not admire the fact that three hundred different and independent tribes, have been united into a single constitution and united by the bridge and thread of humanistic views.
Read the religion and the Prophet only with rituals. View them only for mantras and place of worship. Look through a narrow screen and deal with religion. This is the tendency many people have towards Islam and the Prophetﷺ. But study the prophetic history accurately. Read and evaluate areas of intervention thoroughly. Thus it can be seen how Islam conveys the moral lessons to all spheres. It becomes clear how the Prophetﷺ cultivated a human consciousness that overcomes the cultural differences.
From the dimension through which the Prophetﷺ was read, we must identify the critical studies and the anti-Prophet propagandists. Was the Prophetﷺ read from the frame prepared by the arch enemies, having antipathy or from the authentic and accurate historical references? Facts can be derived from the answer to this question.
In the coming days, we can witness the renaissance of Madeena, which started with a vision of a constitution that would satisfy all the souls of a pluralistic society.
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In Madeena, the environment for preaching was conducive. A remarkable community showed the world the new aspect of social construction.
Now we have to read about the days of progress in Madeena as the capital. Before that, we can remember some remarkable events that happened in the early days of Madeena life. The first of them was the conversion to Islam by Abdullah ibn Salam.
Abdullah ibn Salam was the foremost among the Jewish scholars. When the Prophetﷺ arrived in Madeena, Abdullah bin Salam received convincing evidence that Muhammadﷺ was indeed the Prophet of Allah. He accepted Islam. Anas(R) said: “When Abdullah ibn Salam heard that the Prophetﷺ had arrived in Madeena, he came to him and said: ‘I intend to ask three questions. Except a Prophet will not know the answers.’ He then asked: ‘What is the first sign of the Dooms Day? What is the first food eaten by the inhabitants of heaven? How can a baby resemble father and mother?’ Then the Prophetﷺ said: ‘Gibreel told me the answers to these questions some time ago.’ Then Abdullah said: ‘Gibreel is the enemy of the Jews among the angels.’The Prophetﷺ said: ‘The first sign of the Last Day will be a fire that will gather the people from the east to the west. The first food of the dwellers of heaven is the liver of fish. The reason a baby resembles a man is when the male’s semen is more dominant than the female’s. But if the woman’s dominates, the child will resemble the mother.’ On hearing this Abdullah ibn Salam said: ‘I bear witness that you are the Prophet of Allah.’
A summary of the narrations quoted by many narrators can be read as follows.Abdullah ibn Salam says: I learned that the Prophet ﷺ had reached Madeena. I evaluated his name, signs and time. When the Prophetﷺ reached Quba, a man came and told the news of the arrival of the Prophet ﷺ. I was on top of the palm tree and was working. My aunt Khalida: bint Harith was sitting below. When I heard the news of the Prophet’sﷺ arrival, I recited the takbir. Then my aunt said. After hearing the takbir, it was like hearing that Prophet Moosa(A) had come. Then I said, “By Allah, this is the brother of Prophet Moosa(A). He is a prophet who believes in the ideals of Prophet Moosa(A). This prophet has been appointed with the same mission as Prophet Moosa(A). Then my aunt asked. We used to say that he will be appointed near the Last Day. Is this the prophet? I said yes. Aunt immediately said. That’s right. Isn’t this the prophet!
Then I went to the Prophetﷺ. I observed the face here. Then I realized that this is not the face of a liar. “Convey greetings of peace. Feed the needy people. Keep family ties. Pray at night when people are sleeping. Enter the paradise peacefully”. These were the first words I heard from the Prophetﷺ.
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After accepting the prophethood of the Prophetﷺ, Abdullah Ibn Salam said to the Prophetﷺ, O Prophet of Allah, the Jews are a very lying community. If they come to know that I am a Muslim, they will make accusations against me in front of you.’ Then the Jews came in. Abdullah (R) entered the house without being seen by them. The Prophetﷺ asked the Jews , ‘what kind of person is Abdullah ibn Salam among you?” Then they said: ‘He is the greatest scholar among us. He is the son of a scholar. The best of us. He is the son of the best.’ Then the Prophetﷺ asked: ‘What is your opinion if Abdullah accepted Islam?’ They said: ‘May Allah save him from it.’ On this occasion Abdullah (R) came down to them. Then he said: ‘I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah and that Muhammadﷺ is the Prophet of Allah.’ On hearing this they all said: ‘Abdullah ibn Salam is the worst of us. He is the son of the worst.’ They started making many accusations about him’ Imam Bukhari himself has narrated this incident.
A statement of his greatness is quoted by Bukhari and Muslim as follows. Sa’ad (R) says: “I have not heard the Prophetﷺ say about one, who walks on the earth alive, that he is in Paradise, except for Abdullah ibn Salam.”
Another incident that happened in the early days of the arrival in Madeena was related to the “well of Ruma”. The Muslims who came to Madeena did not have enough water to drink. The only shelter they had was a well owned by a Jew. So the Prophetﷺ announced among his Companions: “Whoever buys Ruma well from a Jew and donates it to the Muslims, he will have Paradise.” Hearing that, Uthman (R) was ready for that and gave money and bought that well and donated it to the Muslims. The idea of the hadeeth in Sahih al-Bukhari which mentions this is as follows. Uthman(R) narrates that the Prophet ﷺ said: “If anyone digs well Ruma, he will have Paradise.” Uthman(R) says: “So I dug it.” In this hadeeth, it is used “to dig”, but the intented meaning is to give ownership to Muslims.
Another event that occurred during this period was the re-determination of the raq’aths in prayer. A hadeeth related to this is as quoted by Imam Ahmad (R). At the time of Prophet Muhammadﷺ’s Mi’raj, the obligatory five daily prayers were two raq’aths each. Only Maghrib had three raq’aths. After reaching Madeena, all other prayers other than Subah were increased from two to four. Maghrib alone was limited to three raq’aths. But these prayers, which were fixed as four raq’aths, were permitted to be performed by travelers in two raq’aths.
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There is a principle that the Subah prayer is shortened to two raq’aths in order to recite the Qur’an at a longer time. Similarly, the Maghrib prayer is limited to three because it is the Witr of the day, and it is also seen in a hadeeth quoted by Imam Ibn Hibban(R).
During this period, an instruction given to the tribe of Banu Salama was part of Prophet’sﷺ foresight. All the companions started moving to the vicinity of Masjidu Nabavi. By this, the Prophet ﷺ had an observation that the areas around Madeena would be left vacant. The Banu Salama lived in an area a little far from the masjid. They expressed their desire to move closer to Masjidunnabavi. The Prophetﷺ discouraged them. He told them the good news that if they walked from a distance, they would have that much reward. This is what can be read in the hadeeth narrated by Imam Muslim (R). Jabir bin Abdillah(R) says: “Our house was a little far from Madeena. We intended to sell our houses and move closer to the masjid. Then the Prophetﷺ forbade us from it. Then we were told: ‘For every step you take, your status will be upgraded.”
The Prophetﷺ said to the Banu Salama as narrated by Imam Bukhari and Muslim:(R).“O Banu Salama, stay in your existing houses. Every step of yours will be well recorded’ – this was repeated twice.”
The idea of what was said was that the walk from home to the masjid will be recorded as a reward for you and therefore you should stay where you are now. If the surrounding areas of Madeena are left empty, it will be a convenience for intruders .Over time, it will be a threat to Madeena.
Let me tell you one more incident. On the 10th of Muharram in the second year of Hijra, a person named Asma’ bin Haritha Al Aslami came to meet the Prophetﷺ. The Prophet asked him: “Have you observed fasting today?” He said: “No.” The Prophet ﷺ said: “But, do fast.” He said: “I have already had breakfast.”The Prophetﷺ said. “That is not a problem. Fast the rest of the day. Tell your family to do the same.” Without wasting any time, he left without even wearing his sandals. He reached the colony of “Ya’in”, where his family lived, on the outskirts of Madeena. Then he asked everyone to fast “Aashura”. Narrations say that Aashura fasting was made compulsory in the second year of Hijra. A few months later in the same year, Ramadan fasting was made compulsory instead.
Here we can also read the history that many families of the Aslam tribe migrated to Madeena in the second year of Hijra. Thus, the number of non-Madeena Muslim immigrants who came and settled in Madeena, was increasing. They were establishing colonies in different parts by looking at tribal and paternal relations etc. There was a precise planning in everything.
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We are moving through the first days at Madeena. One of the most important events of this period was the revelation of the Quranic verses and chapters containing the commands and prohibitions. Almost all the parts of the second chapter of the Holy Qur’an, ‘Al-Baqara’, were revealed during this period. This is also the longest chapter. The beginning of the Qur’anic chapter with a special arrangement of Arabic letters such as ‘Alif’ ‘Lam’ ‘Meem’ surprised the literary giants of the Arabs. These letters are called ‘Al huruf al-muqat’a’. Because they have no structural or apparent connection with the following verses. Twenty-nine chapters of the Qur’an begin with these letters. Some may begin with only one letter. For example, chapter thirty-eight begins with the letter ‘Swad’. In this way, some begin with two, some with three, and some with more letters. Examples are ‘Twaha’ at the beginning of the 20th chapter, ‘Alif Lam Meem’ at the beginning of the 2nd chapter, ‘Alif Lam Meem Ra’ at the beginning of the 13th chapter.
Fourteen of the twenty-eight letters in the Arabic alphabet are included in this type of initial letter. Arabic letters are classified in many ways, considering the difference in sound and pronunciation. Half of all letters in each category are included in the above-mentioned initial letters. We can read detailed studies of these initials and the letters they contain.
The scene at the beginning of the ‘al-Baqaarah ‘ where the Arabs reviewed and were surprised to hear the recitation beginning with ‘Alif Lam Meem’, can be read as follows. Abdullah ibn Abbas (R) narrates that a man named Abu Yasir bin Akhtab walked near the Prophet ﷺ. At that time, the Prophet ﷺ was reciting the opening part of the Al-Baqarah chapter. Abu Yasir listened carefully. Then he came to his brother Huyyay bin Akhtab, who was with his Jewish friends, and said to him, “I heard Prophet Muhammad ﷺ reciting ‘Alif Lam Meem Dalikal Kitabu…’ from the Qur’an.” They asked, “Did you hear?” Yes. They went together to the Prophet ﷺ and they asked. O Muhammad ﷺ .. did you recite the verse from the Qur’an starting with Alif Lam Meem …? Did it reveal to you ? The Prophet ﷺ said yes. Was Gibreel brought from Allah? Yes. Then they continued. Allah has already appointed many prophets. Has not one of them been told the length of their life or the life of their community? Arabic letters are added according to a certain number. According to that, they assigned numbers to the letters Alif Lam Meem and thought that this would be a calculation. So they added the numbers. Alif one. Lam thirty. Meem forty. A total of seventy one. They imagined. The period of authority of this Prophet or the period of the community will be seventy one… They again came to the Prophet ﷺ….
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They asked the Prophetﷺ. Is there anything besides the ‘Alif Lam Meem’? Then the Prophet ﷺ recited. ‘Alif Lam Meem Swaad’. They counted again Alif one Lam thirty Meem forty Swad ninety. Now the total value is one hundred and sixty one? They were confused . They asked, is there anything else? Yes. What is that?. Then the beginning of the chapter ‘Yusuf’ was recited. “Alif Lam Ra”. They said this is a bit tough? Alif one Lam thirty ‘Ra’ two hundred. The total is two hundred and thirty one? Is there anything else? Yes. The beginning of Surah “Al Ra’ad” was recited. Alif Lam Meem Ra. Now the total value is two hundred and seventy one? They said that ‘we can’t understand anything’. Huyyay bin Akhtab said to Abu Yasir. This is a miracle. Could it be that these said years were given to Prophet Muhammad? (ﷺ).
It is actually because they do not understand the Qur’an as they should. All these were also opportunities for them to understand that the Qur’an is the words of the Lord of the Universe. In order for the Arabs to understand the book that was revealed in Arabic, the Prophetﷺ must explain it. Then, apart from mere linguistic knowledge, it was realized that Prophet Muhammadﷺ had a source that gave him this information and words. That source is Allah, the Lord of the Universe.
According to Ibn Abbas (R), it was during this period that Surat “Tawheed” or the one hundred and twelfth chapter of the Qur’an was revealed. Imam Qatada and Lahhak (R) are of the opinion that this chapter was revealed in Madeena. The famous name of the chapter is “Suratul Ikhlas”. Imam Baihaqi cites a background for that. It is like this. A Jewish group consisting of Ka’b bin Al Ashraf and Huyyay bin Akhtab approached the Prophet ﷺ and asked. ‘It is said that Allah created this world. But who created Allah’? When the Prophet ﷺ heard this question, he got angry and his face turned red. Immediately, Allah sent an angel called Gibreel to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. He presented Surat al-Ikhlas. The meaning of this chapter can be read as follows: “O Prophet, say: Allah is One. Allah is He on Whom all depend . He has not begotten (anyone) and has not been born (as an offspring of anyone). For there is none like him”
According to Imam Mujahid and Atwa’u (R), this chapter was revealed in Mecca . According to this opinion, this chapter was revealed when the polytheists of Mecca asked the Prophetﷺ, “who Allah is”?. The initial revelation of a chapter may occur once and the same chapter or verse may be recited on another time depending on the context . In such a case, this difference of opinion is relative or interpretive.
The soul of Madeena is being nurtured under the care of the beloved Prophet ﷺ. The attention of the whole world began to turn towards Madeena. And some people are looking at the map of Madeena on the table with arrow and spear. Clouds of a political intervention are starting to be seen.
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Ibn Ishaq, Ibnul Mundir and others narrate. There was an old man named Shahs bin Qais. He was a man who was very strict and had a great enmity with the Muslims. He was a man driven by envy. Once, he came to a place where the companions of the Prophetﷺ, Aus and Khazraj, were on discussion. It was the Prophetﷺ who befriended the two arch enemies, Aus and Khazraj.He did not like this brotherhood. He devised a plan to divide each other somehow. So he tied up with a young man from the Jews and told him. You must go and sit among them. Then talk about ‘Buas’ day. Recite some of the poems that were recited on that day when they fought each other.
‘Buas’ was the last battle fought between Aus and Khazraj. This battle started five years before the arrival of the Prophetﷺ to Madeena . This young man reminded both tribes from the poems of the hostility and bravery of that time. Unknowingly, they slipped back to the old days. Arguments and counter arguments ensued. Finally, both parties took up arms.
The Prophetﷺ got the information and left with the Muhajirs who were with him. came to the place where the two groups were on the verge of an impending war. Both tribes are standing ready to fight remembering old days. The Prophetﷺ addressed them. Ya Ma’sharal Muslimeen… Oh Muslims.. Am I among you? Are you going back to the time of ignorance..? Beware of Allah.. Remember Allah… After being guided to Islam, is not ignorance severed from you? Has it not saved you from falsehood? Are you back in denial again?
After hearing this, they came to a realization. They realized that the things that had just happened were satanic temptations. They were convinced that it was a trick of the enemies. They hugged each other. They regretted in the quarrel. They laid their weapons on the ground and cried. They walked with the Prophetﷺ as obedient followers. The machinations of Shahs bin Qais and his accomplice failed. In this context, verses ninety-eight to one hundred and one of Al-Imran, the third chapter of the Holy Qur’an, were revealed. The idea reads as follows: “O Prophet, say: O people of the Book, why do you deny the words of Allah? Allah is witness.
O Prophet,) say: People of the Book, why do you turn away the believers from the way of Allah – by trying to distort it? You yourselves are witnesses (that that way is right). Allah is not unmindful of what you do.
O you who believe, if you follow a group of those who were given the Book, they may turn you into disbelievers after you have accepted the faith.
How can you disbelieve when the words of Allah are being recited to you and His Messenger is among you? Whoever holds fast to Allah, he has been guided.”
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Each of the verses of the Qur’an has a clear background for revelation.One of such verses we read earlier. We can read the 245 th verse of Al-Baqara and some other verses of such context.
One day Abu Bakar Sidheeq (R) went to the teaching centre of the Jews . The visit was immediately after the revelation of the above verse in Al Baqara. The meaning of the verse is as follows. “Who is there who lends a good loan to Allah? Then Allah will multiply it to him manifold . It is Allah who keeps (money) and gives it away. To Him you will be returned.” People gathered around Phinhas bin Ashurau, a Jewish priest. Abu Bakar (R) said to him. What a pity !. Live carefully ? Think about Allah. Don’t you know that the Muhammad ﷺ is the messenger of Allah? Isn’t it clearly stated in the Torah that you have studied? Phinhas said immediately. Oh Abu Bakar! We are not dependent on Allah. Allah needs us. We will not be humble to Allah as He humbles to us. We are prosperous than Him. If He were richer than us, would He have asked us for a loan as your Prophet said? He who forbade you taking usury but gives us usury. If he were rich, would he have given us usury? Hearing this, Sidheequ (R) got angry. He slapped Phinhas on the face and said, “You enemy of Allah, If we were not on agreement , I would have cut your throat.”
Phinhas approached the Prophet ﷺ and said. I have been beaten. The Prophet ﷺ asked his friend what was the matter? He said, “Messenger of Allah, this man slandered Allah; ‘Allah is poor and we are rich’. Then I got angry with him out of love for Allah. I beat him and it was right. Phinhas then denied that he had insulted Allah. Immediately He revealed the hundred and eighty-first verse of the third chapter of the Qur’an, Aalu Imran. The idea can be read as follows: “Verily, Allah has heard the words of those who say: ‘Allah is poor and we are rich. We will record what they said and how they killed the Prophets unjustly. We will say (to them) ‘Taste the punishment of the burning Hell.'”
The Qur’an was revealed on the fate of Phinhas and admonishing Sidheeq (R) like this: “Indeed you will be tested in your possessions and bodies. You will hear from those who were given the Book before you and the polytheists many annoying talk; If you are forgiving and circumspect….. Surely this is one of the affairs (which should be determined upon”). This is the idea of the hundred and ninety-sixth verse of the chapter Alu Imran.
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The growth of Islam in Madeena, gave way to serious discussions in Mecca, and its reverberations began to reach Madeena.
Even though he had to migrate, the Prophetﷺ maintained an emotional connection with his native place and the natives. But the stance of the Meccans was just opposite. They determined not to give peace to the Prophetﷺ and his followers even in Madeena. These are the two important things that have come up in this regard: one. Abu Sufyan and Ubayy bin Khalaf, the chieftains of Mecca, wrote to the Ansars of Madeena who had helped the refugees from Mecca: ‘A firefight (war) with you would be more painful for us than with any other Arab tribe. Now you are trying to help one of us who was very respectable and had high status. You shelter and defend that person. This is embarrassing. It is your mistake. So you should not interfere in the problem between us and the said person. If there is any good in him, we should benefit from it. If things turn out the other way around, we have more than anyone else the right to stop him. In response to this, Ka’bu ibn Malik later composed a poem.
This is an important evidence of the animosity that the Meccans showed even after the migration.
Although the Ansars of Madeena rejected their demands, they chose a second way. In Madeena, they issued an ultimatum to Abdullah ibn Ubayy, the opponent of the Prophetﷺ, and his idolatrous friends: ‘You have sheltered our fugitive comrade. By God we say, we are coming there to kill your fighters and seize your women if you do not drive them out. Although this raised some alarm in Madeena, the Ansars stood firm with the Prophet and realized that taking any action against the non-Muslims of Madeena would only lead to internal problems. Therefore, the ultimatum was put aside. Then the Meccans tried to see if they could bring the Jews with them. That led to the war with the Banu Nadirs.
It is understood that the Meccans had taken some economic disciplinary against Madeena at this time. There is an indication of this in what Abu Na’ilah said to his adopted brother, Ka’bu bin Ashraf. Abu Naila said: ‘This man (Prophet) has brought great misfortune to our land. Now the whole of Arabia has become our enemy. Everyone is against us. All roads are blocked. Our families are dying (of starvation). We have nothing to eat. If you want to get food, you have to struggle a lot. Even when we realize that Abu Naila in the enemy camp was exaggerating on purpose, we cannot fail to understand that the financial pressure raised by the Meccans was beginning to be felt in Madeena. Because the Meccans controlled all the international trade routes in the Arab region at that time.
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After reaching Madeena, some diplomatic moves were necessary against the Meccans who were against peace. Those who were talking about worship and social welfare, started talking about defense.
After months of observation, the Prophetﷺ decided to take preventive measures. About a year after reaching Madeena, Prophetﷺ sent out an army. This was to ensure that Meccan trade groups did not pass through areas of Muslim influence. A group of thirty members from the Muhajirs who came from Mecca was prepared. The group was led by Hamza, the paternal uncle of the Prophetﷺ. The Prophetﷺ instructed them to go to the seashore in western Madeena and meet Abu Jahl there. There were about 300 people with Abu Jahl in the caravan. They were encamped in the abode of the Juhaina tribe. Majd ibn Amr, the head of the Juhaina tribe, took the responsibility of protecting both sides and intervened, so there was no conflict. Both sides returned home peacefully.
A few weeks later, a group of sixty Muhajirs led by Ubaidat bin Harith, a relative of the Prophetﷺ, arrived at Saniyat al-Murrah to intercept a large Meccan trading group led by Abu Jahl’s son Ikrimah. But there was no armed conflict there either. There were two Muslims in the enemy caravan. They wanted more freedom.
They were Miqdadu ibn al-Amr al-Bahra’i (Yemen) and Utbat bin Ghazwan al-Mazini. These two people had been living in Mecca for a long time. A possibility cannot be ignored that they may have joined a trading group with the Meccans to reach Madeena very safely.
Another observation group of eight Muhajirs headed by Sa’adu bin Abiwaqas had returned to Kharrar near Ragib. It may be to understand the enemy’s movements or to ally with the tribes there. The journey of the Meccan trading groups on that route could not have been stopped without ensuring the full cooperation of the people living in the respective region, such as the Juhaina tribe mentioned earlier. They were like tourist passage. There were also significant economic benefits to the respective sectors due to the passage of trade groups. Especially if caravans camp in that area. Then they will need water, food and fodder. All these are bought from the respective areas. Those tribes would also face strong retaliation from the Quraish if anything untoward happened to the trading groups. Therefore, in order to gain the cooperation of these tribes, they must be saved from the retaliatory measures of the Quraish. Because of that, there were situations where the Prophetﷺ had to go in person and guarantee security.
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As part of that, the Prophetﷺ went to Waddan, south of Madeena. This is an area near Badr. The Banu Damra tribe lives here. The Prophetﷺ left Madeena for two weeks and joined them. He spent a whole week talking with the said tribe and trying to reach an agreement for mutual cooperation. The records of two agreements made with Banu Damrah are mentioned by historians. In it, the resolution was formulated to be non-aggressive and impartial. They will not attack back.
They did not conspire against the Prophetﷺor help his enemy.’ It seems that the second document was signed after a few months, because after signing the first agreement, the Prophetﷺ again went to Buwat, near Radwa, northwest of Madeena. A small group of Quraish traders was passing through at that time. But history does not mention any conflict with them. The conclusion is that the Prophetﷺ may have gone there only to make an understanding with the people of that area. There are references that after a few days a small group of Meccans under the leadership of Kurs bin Jabir of the Fihr attacked and plundered the southern areas of Madeena. The Muslims tried to catch them for days but failed. It was an act that greatly annoyed the Muslims. At that time, a large group of Meccan traders has left for Syria. Expecting to encounter the group in the north of Madeena, it was decided to move to the coastal area southwest of the city. Because it was the territory of the Banu Damras.
Even then, the small groups from Madeena were only targeting Meccan trade groups. Since it was purely diplomatic, the group from Madeena did not have the goal of confronting groups from other countries or seizing their goods. But the current picture has changed. Reparation for the looting of Kursu Biu Jabir has also become a goal.
The group from Madeena arrived at the residence of the Banu Mudalaj tribe. Suraqah, who had followed the Prophetﷺ during the Hijra, was a member of this tribe. He prepared a sumptuous feast for the Prophetﷺ and followers. But the group whom the Prophetﷺ targetted, escaped through another way. Taking advantage of the opportunity, the Prophetﷺ signed a new contract with them to strengthen the relation . Its contents were as follows. Allah’s Messenger Muhammadﷺ writes to Banu Damra: ‘Their lives and property will be safe. Whoever attacks them unjustly, will help them. If sea water can wet hair, surely it is their duty to help the Prophet in return. Faith-related struggles of Muslims are an exception to this. If the Prophet calls them for help, they must answer. They can trust the assurance of Allah and His Messenger. All support will be given to those who strictly adhere to the contract and conduct themselves without fail.
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The Wuddan military operation is also known as the Abawa military expedition. This was the first military movement in the history of the Prophetﷺ. The Prophetﷺ went to Abawa after entrusting Sa’ad bin Ubadah in charge of Madeena.
In the second year of the Hijra, the Prophetﷺ returned to Madeena satisfied with military operations he had undertaken in the month of Jama’dul Akhir.. Then the Prophetﷺ sent two men to Palestine to get the details of the returning Quraish trading group. Another bold move was made by the Prophetﷺ, by assembling a group of eight courageous Muhajirs under the leadership of a trusted tribal chief. The letter containing the instructions was sealed and given to them so that the information would not be leaked. They were instructed to ‘travel through a high area (Najdiyyah) for two days and move towards a small well (Ruqayyah). They were also instructed that the letter should be opened only at the end of the journey. After the appointed time. The leader of the group, Abdullah ibn Jahsh, opened the letter and read that it was written as follows: ‘After knowing the contents of this letter, you will return to ‘Nakhla’ which is between Mecca and Twaif. Camp there. Keep an eye on the Quraish and bring us information.’
This small group had to travel through the enemy’s settlements. Since the number of people was very small, it can be understood that this group did not have any other adventurous missions other than conveying information. But some of the actions they took had serious consequences. This group caught the attention of a small trading group of Meccans bringing goods such as raisins, leather and liquor. First they hesitated but decided to attack the merchant group. With archery they killed one and took two prisoners. All trade items were seized. Others in the caravan escaped. The Prophet scolded the group that returned to Madeena with the seized goods. He scolded them for doing the opposite of his instructions. Since it was the end of the month of Rajab, bloodshed could also be accused to the forbidden month of war, but the matter did not rise to prominence because the incident took place after sunset on the last day of the month of Rajab. There is an aspect that by then the next month had started.
The Meccans came to Madeena with a ransom to take their prisoners back. They returned with the prisoners. That was the practice of the day. Anyway, that was the end of the problem.
At that time, there was a diplomatic move to Buwat. There were two hundred Muhajirs in the group. Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas was carrying the flag. A white flag was used there also. Sa’ad bin Mu’ad was entrusted with the control of Madeena.
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The Muslims consulted about what to do next. One of the group said, “We cannot continue to discuss ‘what to do with the Quraish’.” If they enter the holy Mecca then they will escape.
It was the last day of the month of Rajab. ‘Rajab is one of the forbidden months’. One person reminded the group . Another person said that ‘it is not so sure that it is the month of Rajab’. Then a third person intervened. This is Rajab itself. Don’t make this day a permissible one to make your wish come true.
At the end of the discussion, they decided to face the Quraish. Waqid bin Abdillah of the Muslim group is an expert archer who did not miss. He shot an arrow at Amr bin Halrami. He did not miss the target. Amr fell dead. With that, the Muslims attacked the Quraish together. Finally, Hakam bin Qaisan and Uthman bin Abdillah were captived by the Muslims. Noufal escaped from there without being noticed by the Muslims. The Quraish’s camels and goods were taken by the Muslims. The goods were grapes, leather and liquor brought from Taif.
The group came to the Prophetﷺ with camels . The Prophetﷺ inquired about the matter. The camels, including the goods, were kept aside. Nothing was taken from it. The hostages were imprisoned. Then the Prophetﷺ asked his followers, “Did I command you to fight in this holy month?
Abdullah’s group was in a metal conflict. They were upset that they were destroyed. Other Muslims also started blaming this group.
The Quraish made use of this opportunity. They alleged that Prophet Muhammadﷺ permitted war in the holy month. The Muslims who were in contact with the Quraish, replied that the incident happened in Sha’ban and not in the month of Rajab. The Jews also took advantage of the scene. They combined the meanings of the names of the slain Halrami and the archer Waqid to create an omen. They interpreted ‘amartal harba’ from ‘amr: or made war, ‘Halartal harba’ from Halrami or participated in the battle, and ‘waqadtal harba’ from waqid: or ignited the war. Such interpretations were designed to blame Muslims and complicate the situation.
The group was in a difficult situation when criticisms were raised from all sides. It was then that the two hundred and seventeenth verse of Al-Baqara, the second chapter of the Holy Qur’an, was revealed. The idea can be read as follows. “They ask you about the sacred month; about fighting in it. Say : “Fighting in that month is a grave sin and hindering (men) from Allah’s way and denying him and turning its people out of it ,are still graver with Allah, and persecution is graver than slaughter; and they will not cease fighting with you until they turn you back away from your religion if they can; and whoever of you turns away from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, their deeds will be null and void in this world and the Hereafter. They are the inheritors of Hell, and therein shall they dwell forever.”
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The Qur’anic clarification gave relief to the believers. The Prophetﷺ accepted the camel herd and the captives. The Meccans sent men with ransom money to free the captives. But the Muslims could not free them immediately. Because two of the Muslims had not returned till then.The two were Sa’ad bin Abi Waqas and Utbat bin Gazwan(R). The Prophetﷺ told the Quraish. ‘Your relatives cannot be released until our men return. Sometimes you may endanger them. If you kill our people we will have to take revenge. Not too late Utba and Sa’ad returned. The reason for delay was that the camel on which they were travelling, had gone missing. He accepted the ransom and freed the captives. One of them, Hakam bin Qaisan, accepted Islam. He was with the Prophetﷺ. He was martyred in Bi’r Ma’una incident in the fourth year of the Hijra. Uthman bin Abdilla, who was with him, returned to Mecca and remained a non-believer.
The two hundred and seventeenth verse of Al-Baqarah stated that those who participated in the military campaign were innocent. But they were left with doubts as to whether they would be rewarded like the fighters. That’s when the one hundred and eighteenth verse of Al-Baqarah was revealed in the second chapter. The idea is as follows: “Those who believe, leave their homelands, and engage in Jihad in the way of Allah, those are the ones who hope for the mercy of Allah, the Merciful.”
Amr bin Al-Halrami was the first person killed in the clash between believers and polytheists. Hakam and Uthman were the first prisoners. The first ganeema or war- property was also the property received by this group.
We are seeing different pictures of the diplomacy of the Prophet Mohammadﷺ. A great ideology was presented like a simple piece of music. Good hearts enjoyed it. The worshipers of darkness opposed it. They created obstacles in the travel routes. The believers tried to overcome with tolerance. At last migrated to another land. They became refugees there and found new means of livelihood. Set new schedules for life.Explored new climates.Formed new friendships and situations.
Despite all this, the enemies of Mecca did not give up their grudge. They were sharpening their spears. The weapons were blown into the furnace and made it glow and shine. They thought that Muslims who are more than four hundred kilometers away cannot be allowed to lead a peaceful life even there. They moved the tools of intrigue. The Quraish were able to accumulate the wealth that the believers had earned in Mecca, and they made good use of it. Regardless of the outcome, the believers decided to defend themselves. They were driven forward by the power of ideals that surpassed the armed forces. Now both parties have almost reached the fore. One more spark is enough to ignite the fire. History’s eyes and ears have been alternately focused on Mecca and Madeena and occasionally on the paths in between.
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The Prophetﷺ decided to make a tactful move. Waited for the return of the merchant group from Syria which had escaped from the ‘Ushaira’ team. The Ushaira group aimed to stop those who were going to Sham to trade with the property of the Quraish. But they passed cunningly. At any coast the trade group must be stopped when they return. Two spies were assigned to monitor the situation. They were Basbasat bin Amr Al Juhani and Adiyy Bin Abussaba’a. Thousand camels and the goods they are carrying now returning. From forty to seventy people are traveling with the caravan for security. The spy team informed the Prophetﷺ that the group led by Abu Sufyan includes prominent leaders like Amrubin al-Aas, Makhrumatu bin Nawfal.
The Prophetﷺ conversed with his followers and shared with them the idea of stopping the Quraish group on their way back. The Prophetﷺ further put forward the idea that by stopping them, can seize their property for the property which the Quraish had seized earlier at Mecca. The Prophetﷺ did not set up any military system or any arrangements because he saw only the goal of stopping a merchant group. He asked only those who had vehicles ready to leave. The Prophetﷺ granted leave to those who needed. Gave excuse to those who were away from vehicles, until it arrived.
The Muslim group set out. It was between the eighth and the twelfth of Ramadan in the second year of the Hijra. The Prophetﷺ counted his followers near a well called Bi’ru Abi Ataba, one mile from Madeena. He sent back those who could not defend themselves and those who could not travel a long distance. Bara’u bin Azib, Saeed bin Thabit, Saeed bin Arqam and others were among those who were sent back. Umair bin Abi Waqqas, who was only fifteen or sixteen years old, was not allowed. He burst into tears. Finally, the Prophetﷺ allowed him.
The Prophetﷺ did not raise an army or prepare an army in Madeena. The first days in Madeena were entirely spent on spiritual preparation and the establishment of brotherhood.
When the Prophetﷺ asked for diplomatic moves, the only capital of the companions, was obedience and good faith to the Prophetﷺ. Confidence moved them forward and hope for heaven gave them strength.
On the same days when the Prophetﷺ and his friends were waiting for the merchant group, some events took place in Mecca. One of them was the dream of Atwiqa.
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Atwika had a terrible dream. Atwika is the daughter of Abdul Mutwalib and the aunt of the Prophetﷺ. She called her brother Abbas and shared the dream. I saw a dream yesterday. It frightened me much. I think it will be disastrous for your family. Quraish, the disbelievers will harm us if they knew this. “Something may happen to us. You must swear not to tell anyone.”
Abbas swore. Atwiqa began to narrate what she had seen. “A traveler appeared on his camel in Abtwah (a region near Mecca). Then he called out in a loud voice, ‘No, you deceivers. After three days, depart for your land of destiny. ” People heard this voice and came to him running. By that time he entered the masjid. The people followed him. Immediately he mounted the camel to the top of the Ka’aba. From there he repeated what he had said before. Then he climbed to the top of Mount Abu Qubais. He did it again. Then he rolled down a rock from the top of the mountain and left. That stone fell down and broke. Its pieces reached every house in Mecca including all huts.”
Abbas listened carefully to Atwiqa. He thought for a while and then said to his sister. By Allah.. Is this an ominous dream? Don’t tell anyone. Keep it as a secret.
Abbas met Waleed bin Uqba. Both of them are close friends. Abbas told Waleed about the dream with the preface of not telling anyone.
Waleed shared it with his son Utba, and the dream spread throughout Mecca by ears to ears. Abbas himself says. Early in the morning when I went to circumambulate the Ka’aba, a group of Quraish were talking about the dream. Among them was Abu Jahl. He told me to come there after the circumambulation of the Ka’aba. Accordingly, I came back after Tawaf and reached the said group. Immediately asked that damned one. O children of Abdul Muttalib.. When did the female prophet come to you?
I asked what is the matter? Don’t you hear that Atwika dreamed of something? He responded, “Oh, she’s never seen anything like that.” I refused, but Abu Jahl did not agree. He began to say, “Is it not enough for men to claim prophethood among you, and now women are trying to become prophets? They claim to have heard that after three days we will leave for the land of death. Let three days pass. We will wait until then. If nothing happens, then you will be declared as the biggest liars among the Arabs. What is this? Are the men among you not enough to say something , and so are the women now ?.
We are not less glorious either. You said that ‘we have the duty of giving drink to the pilgrims’. We agreed. Then you said said that the custodianship of the holy Ka’aba is for you. That also we agreed.
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Then you said the consultative leadership or “Rifada”: ‘That is for us’. We agreed that also. We have given you permission to collect eatables to treat the guests. You entertained guests. We also did the same. That we raced each other like betting horses. In the meantime, prophethood emerged from you. There was only one more claim left: That the emergence of a female prophet. There is no other man or woman who tells lies like you.” Abbas listened calmly to Abu Jahl’s accusations. Abbas said about his self -control like this later. “I did not respond except that I rejected Atwiqa’s dream.”
According to one report, Abbas said to Abu Jahl” You coward…can’t you stop now? You and your family are the liars.” The onlookers comforted Abbas and said, “No, Abul Fazl… you are not stupid or ignorant! Why should you react?”
Abdul Muttalib’s family came to know about what happened between Abbas and Abu Jahl. Atwiqa was not satisfied with Abbas’s response. At evening, all the women of the family approached Abbas and said, “That scoundrel , insulted the men enough. Not enough, he blamed the women too. Why did you just stand there without saying a word? Isn’t that very bad? Abbas was completely ashamed. Finally, he said, “By Allah, I will see him. If he says anything more, I will teach him a lesson.
Abbas felt self-abasement for his soft response to Abu Jahl. He left early on the third day of the dream.
He left as if he had decided to confront Abu Jahl that day. As soon as Abu Jahl saw Abbas, he jumped out of the door of the masjid . Abbas thought. What is the matter with this villain to jump like this? Is he fears me? or something else happened?.
Suddenly there was a voice. The voice of Lamlamul Giffari is heard. He is shouting from the camel’s back in Abtwah. The vehicle has been stopped. The camel’s nose and ears are cut off. Lam Lam has torn the front and back of his shirt as he calls out in a shrill voice, “O Quraysh.. your trading group led by Abu Sufyan-… retrieve it quickly… all your goods and wealth have been blocked by Muhammad and his group..” I don’t think that it may be retrieved. If that happens then everything is gone… try to help quickly.
The news spread in Mecca. Those who heard were alarmed. Abbas and Abu Jahl were thinking of how to free the merchant group… because all the resources of the Meccans were going to be siezed.
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Abu Sufyan escaped on his way to Sham because he left Ushaira earlier. Qafila reached Sham. Many resources have been collected. This time, they bought more goods than they have bought in recent times. Silk, perfumes and curiosities are among the goods.
Abu Sufyan met a man from the tribe of Judam and gathered information from him about the movements of the Prophet ﷺ and his group. Abu Sufyan decided that the return journey should be with more care. The camels, which were moving fast when they went to Sham, now move slowly because they are carrying goods. Abu Sufyan sought information from every traveler he met. Anxiety was increasing as they approached Hijaz.
LamLam, who was used as a guide while going to Sham, was called to him. He was from the tribe of Gifar. He was hired as a guide for a reward of twenty misqals. Abu Sufyana sked him, “You must reach Mecca quickly. We should spread the news that Muhammad and his group are going to stop our trading group. Any means should be used to provoke the Quraish and bring them to the fore. They should be convinced that the entire property of the Meccans is under threat. Accordingly, Lam Lam reached Mecca and screamed loudly.
The whole of Mecca was in turmoil because everyone in Mecca had their savings in this Qafila.
Abu Sufyan moved forward cautiously and reached the area called Badr. He moved near the water reservoir there. On the way, he met an old man named Kashd from the tribe of Juhaina in Hauran. Abu Sufyan asked him, “Did any of the spies from the group of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ come this way?” No, no one came this way! Actually Muslim spies stayed there as his guests. Abu Sufyan moved forward again and met Majdee bin Amr. He belonged to a group that was in alliance with Quraish and Muslims at the same time. Abu Sufyan asked, “Did you see anyone passing this way?” He said, “No one was seen. Go ahead. There are no enemies between you and Madeena . If there is any, we will not be unaware. If there is any information, we will not hide it from you. Two people came near that well and drank water. Then they went back. He pointed out that well.
Actually, it was the spies of the Muslim group who took the water. Those two people were Bas Bas bin Amr and Adiyy bin Abi Swaaba. They were wandering around looking for information about the Qafila of the Meccans . That is how they came near this water. Then on the other side, two young women were talking. One was asking for the debt to be received from the other. Then the one who owed said, Tomorrow the Qafila will pass this way, then I will pay you back doing some services for them and earning that much amount. Hearing this, the companions returned to the Prophet ﷺ.
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Abu Sufyan walked to the place pointed out by Majdibin Amr. He took the camel’s dung and examined it. Abu Sufyan’s power of observation was awakened when he found date kernel from it. He found out that this was part of the feed in Madeena. He confirmed that it was the spies of Prophet Muhammadﷺ who came here and took water. He decided that it was not logical to continue the journey. Now Qafilah must be led to Mecca by another route. Thus, the course of the journey was reversed through the Red Sea. The Quraish caravan safely reached Mecca without being noticed by the Muslim group.
Before Qafila reached Mecca, the Quraish began to discuss about military operations. The anxiety raised in them by Atwiqa’s dream and Lamlam’s warning gave them the courage to fight. They enthusiastically began to tell many stories. They said among the group, “Do Muhammad and his companions think that this will be like stopping Ibn al-Halrmi’s group? No. This will never happen, the result will be the other way around and only they will know the consequence.
The Quraish prepared for battle. Those who could not attend in person decided to send a representative instead or a warrior at his own expense. Abu Lahab decided not to come for the time being. The fear that Atwika’s dream would come true, really bothered him. He agreed to send Aasw bin Hisham to the battlefield instead of him. Abu Lahab agreed to give up four thousand dirhams which Aasw owed to him.
The Quraish were constantly trying to keep the fighting spirit of the people burning. They kept awakening them by repeating that if we avoided such a campaign, all our property and assets would be lost. Leaders and chiefs worked among the common people. They were supplied with maces, swords and other weapons. The rich made contributions to the war and offerings to the warriors. Many people gave support like a camel for ten warriors and food for twenty soldiers. Suhail bin Amr shouted in the group, “Leave your wealth to Muhammadﷺ and the apostate Yasribians. No, never. O Quraish! Whether you need money, it is ready here. Whether you need food, my pantry is open here.!
Sam’at bin Aswad called among the Quraish and said, “Truly, Lata and Uzza, no calamity will befall you. Muhammadﷺ and companions are going to block your wealth on the way. Their move is not just to threaten you. They are to establish authority over you. To conquer us all. So prepare quickly. No one keep aloof from this. Those who have no weapon, organize it and be ready.”
The Meccans were about to leave with all their weapons, and Abu Jahl rushed forward with great enthusiasm. He became arrogant with his thought to defeat the Prophetﷺ.
But Umayyad, the second in line of the enemy, lacked courage. He is not going to war. He is staying at home for the time being! Because he is haunted by some thoughts, memories and practices. Let’s read that one and move on.
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Umayyad was worried that the Prophetﷺ would kill him. The reason was nothing else. He had not forgotten a conversation a few days ago. The prominent Ansari Sa’ad bin Mu’ad and Umayya were close friends. If Sa’ad came to Mecca , he would be the guest of Umayya. If Umayya went to Madeena, it was the same. Umayya did not give up his hospitality when Sa’ad came after converting to Islam. He was given the opportunity to circumambulate the Ka’aba. At a time when there were less people near the Ka’aba, Umayya took Sa’ad and reached to perform Tawaf. But very unexpectedly, Abu Jahl appeared there. He called and asked. ‘Who is there circumambulating ? “Sa’adbin Mu’ad.” Well, will you give refuge to those who renounced their religion and come from Mecca to perform Tawaf safely? Had it not been you witht Umayya or Abu Safwan, I would have shown you. You would not have returned to your family. Sa’ad responded in the same language to Abu Jahl who was angry with him. If we are not allowed to perform Tawaf, we know how to respond in kind. We will see your trading group as it should be seen. Immediately Umayya intervened and told Sa’ad that Abul Hakam is the leader of this province and should not speak loudly to him. Umayya said so thinking that to make Sa’ad calm down. But Saad is not pacified. He turned to Umayya and said this. No Umayya, are you too like this man ?
It is true that I heard the Prophetﷺ say about you once; he would kill you. Umayya was stunned when he heard that the Prophetﷺ would kill him. He suddenly asked. Is it me? Yes. Will it be in Mecca ?. I don’t know that. Sa’ad completed his words. The truth is, Muhammadﷺ does not lie. His prophecies scared them even when they resisted. Likewise Umayya was greatly affected by this statement.
It is this memory that pulls Umayya back from leaving for Badr. He had told this prophesy to his wives. From then on, he decided that no matter what happened, he would not leave Mecca. But when the whole of Mecca was ready to go against the Muslims, he first thought about going with them. When his wife reminded him of Sa’ad’s announcement once again. Umayya decided to be in Mecca, deciding not to fight any more. But anyway, the Quraish decided to take him with them. Many tricks were used. Approached him giving all respects and pointing out the dangers of sitting back there . But he didn’t budge. Finally a man called Uqbat bin Abi Muayt came with a basket with camphor and some oud and said to Umayya. “Smoke this like girls and sit here” this angered him. He jumped up and said “Woe to you and your spear.. oh my god ! When this wretched one will die?.” Another incident happened in the group and Abu Jahl said “O Abu Swafwan you are the leader of this valley. If you don’t come out many may retreat from this advance so get ready soon…”
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Even when Umayya tested the omen, he got the instruction, ‘don’t leave’. Sam’at bin Al Aswad and Rabeea’s sons, Utba and Shaiba also tested the omen with Umayya. They also received the same message. This also worried him.
But the pressures came from all sides. Finally, reluctantly, he was about to leave. He bought the best camel that could be found in Mecca. He set off on it. He had the idea of going back in between if he got a chance. But he could not do that until he reached Badr.
Uqbat bin Abi Muayt also hesitated to leave. He was also haunted by a memory. One day before the migration, he invited the Prophetﷺ for a feast. The Prophetﷺ accepted the invitation. But the Prophet put forward one demand that he will eat the food only if Uqba recite the Shahadath”. He agreed and declared. “I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Prophet Muhammadﷺ is the Messenger of Allah.” He thought that all the problems are solved. But the polytheists of Mecca raised this as a problem. They blamed Uqba. He also felt that ‘I should not have changed so much. So he asked them what to do next. They said Uqba. You should insult Prophet Muhammadﷺ and spit on his face.
He wanted to do it. According to that, he scolded the Prophetﷺ and spat in his face. Then the Prophetﷺ said that if he sees him outside Mecca, he will have to kill him. This statement kept bothering him and he did not dare to leave Mecca. But the Quraish also pressured him and gave him a red camel and he had to leave. He reached Badr and was captured and died.
Udba bin Rabi also did not want to leave. But he had to give in to Shaiba’s insistence. There is one more scene here in some reports. When Utba and Shaiba were leaving, their slave named ‘Addas’, a Christian slave, requested. Addas was the one who received the Prophetﷺ in the garden after he had returned from Twaif. Addas begged his masters. Surely you will be led to the killing pit. Indeed, they retreated a little at a time, but Abu Jahl followed them. They also left with the thought of going back. However they reached Badr. Their end was there .
Not a single person from the Zuhra tribe of Mecca joined the Quraish. They were completely absent. It was not because the mother of the Prophetﷺ was from this tribe. Rather, it was due to the intervention of the pacifist Akhnasu bin Shariq. There was no Adiy tribe in the Quraish army. It is observed that the reason may be due to the influence of Umar ibn al-Khatwab, who was related to the Adiy tribe.
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The Quraish were ready to leave Mecca. When the preparations were completed, an important issue arose. It was the memory of a revenge with the Kinana tribe . A Kinana man was killed by the Quraish. Meanwhile, a handsome Quraishi youth came to the Kinanas in search of a missing animal. The tribal leader Amir bin Khaluj, who was jealous of this youth , instigated his people against this young man. Finally he was killed. The Kinana tribe decided this as a revenge . The Quraish also had to agree to it. It was then that the brother of the slain-Quraish youth met Amir, the Kinana chief, at Marrullahrran. The chief was hacked to death . The dead body was tied to the Kiswa of the Ka’aba. Amir’s sword was also attached to the body. At the morning , the Quraish were worried about this sight. When they saw the sword, they knew that the slain was Aamir. Almost everyone guessed who was the slayer .
The people of Mecca had to face the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and his followers in such a critical situation. The Quraish are worried that if they leave Mecca the people of Kinana may attack Mecca. In the absence of powerful youths, the Kinana may attack women and children? Or will they take revenge by doing some lightning attack ? They pondered over all these . Then one appeared – Suraqat bin Malik. He called out and said, “You need not fear that the Kinanas might do something against you. I will manage it.” The Kinanas with me are ready to help you. No one has grown up to defeat you. Take courage!. The Quraish felt some relief .
It was devil appeared in the form of Suraqah. The Quraish recognized it when the angels appeared at Badr.
The group of Quraish is ready to travel from Mecca. They approached the Ka’aba straight away. Took the Kiswa and prayed. Oh god ! , “O god! Help the most glorious of the two armies, the most glorious of the two tribes, and the most glorious of the two sides! Referring to this prayer, the nineteenth verse of the eighth chapter of the Holy Qur’an Al-Anfal was revealed. The idea reads as follows”
“O disbelievers, if you sought success, then success has come to you. If you retire, that is better for you. If you repeat it, we will repeat it. No matter how strong your group is, it will not help you. Allah is with the believers.”
The Quraish had already set out in celebration. They were at the height of their excitement. Dancers and singers accompanied . Every day there are different food dishes. Smoked perfume to make the whole area fragrant. With the delusion that this will end Islam. The Quraish army, including Abu Jahl, continues to travel with great enthusiasm……
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At Rawhau, a man named Habeeb bin Yasaf expressed interest in joining the Prophetﷺ. He was a polytheist but a brave man with popular support. He wanted to join the group to be with his uncle’s Muslim sons and to gain post-war wealth. The Prophet asked him. ‘Do you believe in Allah and His Messenger’? No. Then the Prophet sent him back. Then the Prophetﷺ explained, “We will not accept the help of the polytheists against the polytheists,” but he refused to go. Again he repeated the request. Again the Prophetﷺ sent him back. When he sought permission for the third time, the Prophetﷺ asked him, “Do you believe in Allah and His Messenger?” Then he recited the word of faith and said ‘yes’. Then the Prophetﷺ allowed. He made a brave presence in the war .But some have also quoted the opinion that he sought the Prophet’s consent after declaring Islam.
The Muslim group had only seventy camels to travel. Three or four people were traveling in turn on one camel The Prophetﷺ Ali and Marsad bin Abi Marsad depended on the same vehicle. Ali and Marsad requested the Prophetﷺ that the Prophetﷺ can travel all the way on the vehicle and they can walk. Rejecting their request the Prophetﷺ said. ‘You are not stronger than me and he was not the one who does not need reward from Allah more than them’.
This is a vivid picture of Prophet’sﷺ companionship and humbleness.
Let us read the list of some groups who traveled with each camel in turn
1) Ubayy bin Ka’ab, Umara bin Hazm, Harizat bin Nu’man,
2) Hamza, Za’id bin Hariza, Anasath, Abu Kabsha.
3) Khirash bin Sama’, Qutbat bin Amir, Utbat bin Ghazwan, Tufail bin Amr
4 Ubaidat bin Harith , Two sons of Harith (Tufail and Husain) Mistah bin Asasa
5) Abul Hamra and three sons of Afrau, (Muad, Muawwid and Awf)
6) Abdullah bin Masuood, Ammar bin Yasir,
7) Mis’ab bin Umair, Suwaibat bin Harmala, Masuood bin Rabeeu
8) Uthman bin Mazgoon, Qudama, Abdullah bin Malgoon, Saib bin Uthman
9) Abdullah bin Ka’abu, Abu Dawud Al Mazini, Sulaith bin Qays
10) Abu Bakar, Umar, Abdu Rahman bin Auf
11) Sa’ad bin Zaid, Salamat bin Salama, Ubbad bin Bishr, Rafi bin Yazid
12) Ubaid bin Zaid, Rafi’s two sons (Rifaa, Khallad)
13) Sa’ad bin Mu’ad, Harith bin Aus, and Harith bin Anas
When Ubaid bin Zaid and his companions were traveling, the camel got tired and fell down when it reached Rawhau. They expressed their grievances to the Prophetﷺ. The Prophet told them to bring some water. He took some water in his mouth and poured it into another vessel. After that he performed ablution. Then he took it and poured it into the camel’s mouth and body. Then the Prophetﷺ told to continue journey. The camel traveled tirelessly at a fast pace.
The horses that the Muslims had on their journey to Badr were just five . The horses belonged to the Prophetﷺ Miqdad, Marsad and Zubair(R).
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When the Prophetﷺ reached the well Bi’ru Abi Inaba or Abu Inaba well, sheathed his sword and put on a military armor. Then he prayed to Allah for his followers. O Allah! They are bare feet, give them a vehicle! They are unclothed, please clothe them…! They are hungry… Feed them. These are the poor; give them prosperity with your bounty!”
This prayer was answered .When returned from Badr, received food and vehicles. Moreover, the money given by the Quraish to free the captives, was also received as wealth. The Prophetﷺ made a special prayer for the people of Madeena. Oh Allah ! Your slave and beloved prophet Ibraheem(A) prayed for Mecca. I, Muhammadﷺ, your slave and messenger pray for Madeena. Shower blessings on the grains,crops and resources of Madeena. Make Madeena dearer to us. Remove the disease from here to Juhfa. As your beloved slave and Prophet Ibraheem(A) declared Mecca as sacred land or Haram, I declare Madeena a sacred land between the two boundaries of black stones”.
The Muslim group continued their journey. They reached an area called ‘Arqullabia’, which is sixty-eight kilometers away from Madeena. It is three kilometres away from Bi’ru Rauhau. This area is also called ‘Sajsaj’ as it is a windy area that is neither too cold nor too hot.
Asked an old villager who was met on the way about the Quraish trading group. He did not have any information. Also inquired to another person. Then that person was asked to talk to the Prophetﷺ. He immediately asked the Prophetﷺ if he was the Messenger of Allah?. The Prophetﷺ said. ‘Yes’. If so, then what is inside this camel’s stomach?. The man asked the Prophetﷺ. Salamat bin Salama did not like his malicious question. He came forward and said, “I will tell you what is inside. Don’t ask such questions to the Prophetﷺ. After all, it is a child born from you. The Prophetﷺ did not like this. Even though the man said this to shut up the arrogant questioner. The Prophetﷺ intervened and reprimanded his follower. ” “Why are you rebuking him? Stop.” Then turned his face away.
Again the journey continued. Traveled making the road to Mecca left side. Then the right side went straight to the ‘Naziyyah’ area. After going a little further, reached the ‘Rahqan’ valley. There, the Prophetﷺ appointed two men to inquire about the Quraish. Those two men were ‘Basbus bin Amr Al-Juhani’, who was in tie with the Banu Zaida tribe, and ‘Adiyu bin Abu Saghaba’, who was in good terms with the Banu Najjar tribe.
Again the group moved forward. The Prophetﷺ asked, “Which mountains do you see?” Someone said ‘Muslih’ and ‘Muarrikh’. He continued to ask. Who are the tribes that live there? ‘Banunnar’ and ‘Banuharraq’ are the tribes. The Prophetﷺ was not very satisfied when he heard the names. He moved a little to the right and reached Wadi ‘Dafran’.
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When he reached Wadi Daffran, he learned that the Meccans had deployed force to face them militarily. With that, the scene changed. Those who came to face a 70-member merchant group now had to face an army. The trade route to Syria is everything to the Meccans. Anything that disrupts it will affect every aspect of the Meccan’s lives. Because of that, the whole of Mecca is in turmoil. The Prophetﷺ got more information.
Prophetﷺ led the group forward with confidence. The hope of the Prophetﷺ is the help from Allah. Prophet Muhammadﷺ got a promise from Allah that he would get either the merchant group or ‘Eer’ or the army or ‘Nafir’. So there was no need to panic.
The Prophetﷺ gathered his followers. New news was shared. Diplomatic strategies to move forward were discussed. A great war is ahead that will change the course of the world.
Here beloved Prophetﷺ has to perform a great task. How to organize the measures of a defense as well as a moral war. The Prophetﷺ along with his companions proceeded to the Asafir Valley. He told his companions the situation of a war and then asked them. What should we do? Should the trade group be caught or should face the war?
Then a group said: If he had first told them about the possibility of a war, they could have prepared for it. Now they can follow the merchant group and leave the enemy. At this time, the Prophet’s face changed. It is then that the fifth verse of the eighth chapter of the holy Qur’an, Al-Anfal, revealed. The idea can be read as follows: “Even as your Lord caused you to go forth from your house with the truth, through a party of the believers were surely averse;”.
The Prophetﷺ asked his companions again for their opinions. Then Abu Bakar (R) stood up and spoke. The gist of the talk was that they were ready for anything with self-sacrifice. Then Umar (R) stood up. The Muhajirs are ready for battle with courage and stopped saying that our courage has not been lost. Again, the Prophetﷺ sought the opinion of his companions. Then Miqdad bin Amr said, “O Messenger of Allah! Go ahead as He commanded! We will not say you, ‘You and your God go and fight, and we will sit here.’ As the Israelites said to their prophet. We will say, You and your Lord engage in war. We will be with you.” By Allah! we will stand with you as long as our eyelids move. Perhaps you may lead us to the farthest end of the Arabian peninsula, Barkulgimad, then also we will be with you.” Hearing this the face of the Prophetﷺ brightened. He smiled and prayed for Miqdad.
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The Prophetﷺ spoke to his companions again and asked them to express their opinion. The purpose of the question was how the Ansar or the people of Madeena would react. Because the Prophetﷺ had memories of the earlier agreement with the people of Madeena . It only mentioned that protection would be provided in Madeena. It was necessary to know what would be their stance in this move outside of Madeena .
Despite the Muhajirs or Meccan companions declaring their full support, the Ansar realized that the reason behind seeking, was to know their opinion. Immediately Sa’ad bin Mu’ad (R) got up and started speaking. O Messenger of Allah! Aren’t you intending us? The Prophetﷺ said ‘yes’. Then Sa’ad continued. “We believed in you. We accepted you as the true messenger from Allah. We accepted your religion as the true religion. We obeyed your orders. So proceed with what He commanded. We will be with you. By Allah who appointed you! If you point to the sea and go down to it, we will also go down with you. Notne of us will be left behind. We will not hesitate to face our enemy. We will be brave in fighting and patient in the hardships of war. With the blessing of Allah, you may move forward. May you receive pleasant sights from us.
Another narration of Sa’ad’s conversation is as follows: “You may think that the Ansars have no obligation to help you except in their own country. But I am speaking as a representative of the Ansar. Travel wherever you wish. Keep relations with those who are interested and cut ties with those who are not interested. You decide for yourself whom to make peace with and whom to be in enmity with.” Take as much of our property as you like from us. We would like more what you take than what you leave behind. We will always be ready to obey any of your commands. We will be on your left, right, front and back.
By the time he heard this, his eyes widened. His face was filled with light. His joy was evident. Immediately he said, “You walk forward. We will defeat one or two groups, either the Eer or the trading group. Or the Nafir or the army. Allah has promised me that. It is as if I see the leaders of the enemy ranks falling dead before my eyes.”
It was clear in that speech that the departure was to achieve a direct victory to a strong army.
Now the Muslim group is moving forward carrying three flags. Two black and one white flag. The white flag was carried by Mis’ab bin Umair. One of the black flags was held by Ali and the second one by Sa’adu bin Mu’ad,(R) the leader of the Ansars. Imam Waqidi said that the flag was not raised when leaving Madeena.
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Now let’s see where the Quraish arrived. They set out in celebration. They prepared food lavishly every day. When they reached Marrullahran, Abu Jahl slaughtered ten camels. But there was an incident. One of the camels ran in fear of death. Blood gushed from the camel reached to the tents where people lived. Observing this as a bad omen, the Banu Adiy tribe left for the country.
The journey of the Quraish to Badr lasted for ten days. The number of camels slaughtered in each place can be read as follows. Umayat bin Khalaf nine in Uzfan. Suhail bin Amr ten in Qadeed. Shaibat bin Rabia: nine in Manat. There the traveling party stayed for one day. Utbat bin Rabi’a: ten at Juhfa. Maqees bin Umar nine camels at Abawa. On the seventh day, ten by the sons of Hajjaj; Nabih and Munabbih. On the eighth and ninth days, Abbas bin Abdul Mutalib slaughtered ten camels and Harith bin Amr bin Naufal nine camels respectively. On the tenth day, Abul Bukhtiri slaughtered all ten camels at Badr.
When the group reached Juhfa, a strange event happened. A Muttalib leader named Juhaim bin Swalat had a dream; A man was coming on a horse. He was accompanied by another camel. Then he shouted loudly. Utbatu bin Rabi’a: He was killed. Shaibat bin Rabi’a : was Killed. Abul Hakam bin Hisham was killed. He named the Quraish chieftains and said that they were killed. Then he cut the hump of his camel and sent it to the camp of the Quraish. The blood splashed from this camel reached on all the tents.
Hearing this dream, Abu Jahl laughed sarcastically. And then said. Oh! Another prophet has come from the family of Abdul Mutalib. Who will be killed in the battle tomorrow? Let us wait and see.
The Quraish strength was between nine hundred and fifty and one thousand men. Seven hundred and fifty camels and hundred horses. Armours for the infantry and cavalry. This dream seemed a joke to the leader of a powerful army that was going forward with all these equipments.
But the dreams of Atwiqa and Juhaim influenced at least some of the Quraish army. It worried many of the Mutalib family in particular, but the leaders of the group could not retreat out of fear and shame.
In the meantime, another important event happened. At Juhfa itself, the Quraish army met the messenger of Abu Sufyan, the head of the Quraish trading group. He informed them that the trading group had reached Mecca safely. The Messenger also conveyed Abu Sufyan’s message that by the grace of the Almighty they have reached Mecca safely and that the army should return without making any trouble. But the arrogance of the Quraish leaders did not allow them to retreat. Abu Jahl shouted loudly, “By God! We will not go back… The group went to Badr for three days and encamped. They slaughtered the camels and served a feast.
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Apart from his pride, Abu Jahl also had an idea that the Muslims will be cowards. If they find out that the merchant group has escaped, they will return to the Madeena . They might have already known the size, and prowess of the army that left Mecca , so they will never be ready for a battle. Let’s go to Mecca announcing the glory. Let’s return to the old glory. Let’s keep the supremacy we had over the tribes. This is how Abu Jahl’s internal thoughts continue.
On the other hand, the Prophet ﷺ and his followers had to perform some duties. It can be read like this. It was not logical to leave the Quraish in this arrogance and pride. While the help from Allah was promised, either the trade group or the military victory should have been achieved . If the Quraish were not confronted, the non-Muslim tribes and Jewish- Christian groups living in Madeena, might break away from the alliance and attempt for an invasion, thinking that the Muslims are weak. It may again become a threat to Madeena and the believers.
At Badr, now there are the Muslim group preparing for a defense on precise grounds and the Quraish group fighting with obvious pride .A group of people who left their homeland, close friends and relatives for a great faith and came to a distance of more than four hundred kilometers and moved forward peacefully. The enemy side, who thought that those who disagreed with them should not exist anymore and live peacefully in the country where they sought refuge, came to destroy them.
Why should we go to war? Didn’t our trading group escape and reach Mecca? Have we lost any thing? There were those who thought all these things among the Quraish side.
Abu Sufyan learned of Abu Jahl’s stance that he had decided to go back to Mecca even though he was told to return to Mecca . It was Qais bin Imri ul Yais who shared the information. Immediately Abu Sufyan said, “Woe to our people! This is the work of Amr bin Hisham. He will not return. He is causing trouble to the people he leads. This is a bad omen and a crime. Sure!” If Muhammad ﷺ and his group met our group, they would follow them until they were brought back to Mecca.
We can see another picture of the Quraish under internal pressure. Ubayy bin Shuraikh was an ally and prominent leader of the Banu Zahra tribe. He approached the Banu Zahra tribe and said, ‘God has saved your wealth. Your representative Makhrumat bin Noufal has also arrived unharmed. Now our problem is humiliation. I am ready to take the responsibility. Things are not as Abu Jahl says. Why should you go for something that is of no use to you? Go back to your country.” The Banu Zahras realized the truth . They returned to their country. From then on, Ubayy’s name changed to Akhnas bin Shuraikh, or the one who retreated.
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When Akhnas found Abu Jahl alone, asked, “What is your opinion about Prophet Muhammadﷺ? Do you have any opinion that he is a liar?” No, we used to call that person ‘Al-Ameen’, but the Mutalib sons are in charge of all the affairs of Mecca, such as consultation, water supply for the pilgrims. We do not wish to entrust the prophethood to one of them. That is the problem. And what do we have then.?
It became clear to Akhnas that Abu Jahl was driven by jealousy and lust for power. That was the reason for retreat of Akhnas.
Let us read another scene before the Quraish reached Badr.
They were traveling near the settlement of the tribe of Ghifar. Imaau bin Rahla, a chief who was there, sent ten camels with his son to the Quraish and said, “If you like, we are ready to help you with men and weapons. We will perform our duty.” But the Quraish responded. ‘You have connected family ties and fulfilled duties. By the God, we have no shortage in confronting Muhammadﷺ and his group. Now, as Muhammad said, if we are fighting Allah, then no one can defeat Him!.
Another account of this incident is as follows. Khifaf, the son of Imau, says that it was very dear to my father to bring harmony among the people. When the Quraish were passing to Badr, he sent me to them with ten camels to give them. When I began to drive the camels my father also joined with me. I handed over the camels. They distributed it among the tribes. Then my father went to Utba, their leader, and asked, “Oh , Abulwaleed, what is this journey for ?” ‘I do not know. By God , I am a loser.’ He replied. Then father asked. “Aren’t you the leader of the people? Return with them. What is the obstacle in not doing so. Take the blood money of your ally Amru bin Al Halrami. You also take responsibility for the camels captured by the Muslims at Batwnu Nakhl. Now these are the only things you need to get from Muhammadﷺ. By Allah! If Abul Waleed kills Muhammad (ﷺ) and followers, it means we kill ourselves.”
There are different historical readings on the intervention of Ima’u; that he had already accepted Islam and was not on the Quraish side at Badr.
In any case, the enemy of Islam could not form a unanimous opinion on the journey to Badr. These events indicate that. Towards the end of the war, the mood of many people was lost . Internal dissensions grew. Many people were gripped by fear.
The group marched forward again and the proud leaders boasted. The cursed devil appeared as an ally. ‘I am with you and no one can defeat you’ he shouted.
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The time for the battle of Badr is near. The Quraish were anxious to know the situation of the Muslim group. They appointed Umair bin Wahab as a spy. Umair moved towards the tents of the Muslims. He observed the premise. After observing the condition, he returned to the Quraish group and said, “They will be about three hundred people.” It may be a little more.
Is there anyone lurking in the surrounding area?. They doubted. I will also check if there are any hiding spots in the area. I need some more time for that. Then Umair traveled a long way across the valley. He made a detailed search. But he could not find any secret shelters or hideouts. Umair returned from the search and shared the information accurately with the Quraish. Then he said: “O Quraish! I did not see anything special, but I saw with them camels carrying death.” .I feel that the water-drawing camels of Yathrib carry death in a terrible way. Have you not seen the companions of Prophet Muhammadﷺ who keep silence waiting for the order. Do you not notice that they look with eyes like stones in the stream? They have not come to go back to their families. They only have their swords with them.
No shields or armor. By the God, I think that one of them will not be killed until one of you is killed. So if people are killed from us up to their strength, then what is the meaning is of our lives. Think about it and say. What is our decision?
Umair thought of going back after seeing the bad omen. Hakeem bin Hizam also came forward. He approached Utba and asked, “O Abul Waleed! Aren’t you an acceptable leader of the Quraish? Are you ready for a plan and a decision that will make you remember well forever?”. What is that Hakeem ?. Utba asked. You return with with those who came with you. Take up the responsibility of Amr bin Halrami. He is the member of your ally. Yes. I will be responsible for the blood money and lost property. But you must deal with Amr bin Hisham or Abu Jahl.” Then Utbah bin Rabeea addressed the Quraish. O Quraish !
By Allah,! You have nothing to gain by confronting Muhammadﷺ and his followers. Suppose If you kill them, there will be accusations such as you killed the sons of your own uncle. Later, you will see faces that you do not like and disputes among you. So leave Muhammadﷺ and his companions alone. On the other hand If they gain, then the Quraish will be proud of.
Oh, people, you may think of the shame of going back. Lay it on me. You may say I have become a coward. That’s okay too. You are not ignorant of Utba’s bravery. Utba, who took the burden of humiliation and blood money by considering Hakim’s opinion, went to the Quraish and tried to convince them of the facts. I seek refuge from the One who created these faces that shine like lamps against the serpent-eyed faces. Or I do not like the Quraish and the Ansars to be in confrontation.
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Hakeem considered Utba’s suggestion. Anyway, he decided to approach Abu Jahl. When he reached there, Abu Jahl was taking out his armour from the leather bag. Hakeem asked, Oh Amr bin Hisham ! . Utba wanted to ask you that “Why can’t you avert confronting your uncle’s son (or Muhammadﷺ)?”. Abu Jahl got angry as soon as he heard it. Has he not received anyone else as his messenger but you? No one needs me as a messenger except Utba ! Hakeem responded.
Oh what a fear ! (Of Utba). He is a coward . Muhammad ﷺ, is accompanied by only a group who are too small to eat a camel. And his son (Abu Hudaifa) is one among the Muslims . It is the fear that he will be killed that makes Utba so cowardly.
There is also like this in an another report . Oh, are you talking like this ? If someone else had said this, I would have abused his mother, “You are a coward, aren’t you?” I will not retreat from this until a decision is reached between us and Muhammad ﷺ. He asserted.
There is also a narration like this. Immediately after Hakeem’s conversation, Abu Jahl called out the Quraish. Utba said this because Muhammad ﷺ is his uncle’s son and his own son is with Muhammad ﷺ. He is held back by the fear that they might be killed.
Abu Jahl was not calm.He entered into conversation to provoke the Quraish. Amir bin Al Halrami, the brother of Amr bin Al Halrami, who was killed, was called and said, “Didn’t you hear what your ally Utba said ?” Utba says that we should go back with the people. Utba will give you the blood money of your brother . Aren’t you ashamed to accept it? Will you avoid your brother’s killer right in front of your eyes? If you take revenge, don’t you remember the promises made to you? Think about it .
Aamir’s blood boiled. He stood up and stripped his clothes from the back. He sprinkled dust on his body. Then he screamed. What a pity ! Oh my brother Amr. The efforts of Hakeem and Utba failed. Finally Utba said, “Let’s wait and see…. Who is afraid and who is coward?”
The Prophet ﷺ and his group continued their journey and reached ‘Dabba’ near Badr. The Prophet ﷺ and Abu Bakar (R) went down to assess the information of the enemy and to observe the surroundings . During the journey, they met an old man named Sufianu Lamari. They asked him about the Quraish and the Muslim group. He said, “If you tell me who you are, I will give you the information”. “If you give us the information, we will tell you who we are.” Said The Prophetﷺ and Abu Bakar (R). Then he started saying that; ‘ I came to know that Muhammad and his followers left on such a particular day . If it is right, they might have reached at such and such place. The place he said was correct. According to what I knew, the Quraish must have reached this area as per the day they left. Then he asked ;where are you from ?. After saying “Minal Mau”, which means ‘from the water’, they pointed towards Iraq. The old man asked, “Isn’t it from Ma’ul Iraq or near the water in Iraq?”. Soon the Prophet ﷺ and Sidheeq (R) returned. By “Minal Mau”, they intended that everyone was born from water.
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The Prophetﷺ again questioned the people who had been captured and brought by the Muslim. They informed that the Quraish were encamped behind the Udwat al-Quswa dune. They explained that they did not know their exact number, but there were many people and a strong fighting group. Then the Prophetﷺ asked. How many camels are slaughtered for food everyday? If one day is nine, then the next day is ten. Right. In that case, there will be between nine thousand and one thousand people. The Prophetﷺ came to the conclusion. Normally, if one camel is slaughtered, there will be meat for hundred people to eat. Then the Prophetﷺ asked who are the prominent people in the Quraish group? They said: Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Suhail bin Amr, Utbat bin Rabeea: Shaibat bin Rabeea: Abul Bukhtiri bin Hisham., Haris bin Amir, Nalar bin Haris, Tuaimat bin Adiyy, Sam’ at bin Aswad, Amr bin Abduwud, Umayyat bin Khalaf, Nabih bin Hajjaj, Munabbih bin Hajjaj, Hakeem bin Hisam, Naufal bin Quwailid etc. are all prominent. Then the Prophet ﷺ said to his Companions, “Look, Mecca has thrown to you pieces of it’s liver.”
By the time the trial was going on in the Muslim camp, the third person who had escaped from the Companions reached the Quraish camp. He said. “O Quraish! The son of Abu Kabsha (the Prophetﷺ) and his followers have arrived at Badr. They have captured those who went to collect water for you.”
Hearing this, the Quraish were shaken. The news was beyond their expectations. The smoke of resentment rose from the Quraish camp.
Some sadness arose from the Muslim camp; We are the people of truth who should win. But we are far from the source of water. Not enough water for drinking and bathing. Some have to take a bath if they want to pray. Quraish were evil-doers. But they camped near Udwat al-Khuswa. Water would be easy for them. The area around our tent is sandy. Not good ground to walk on. What is going to happen. If we get tired due to thirst, it would be easy for the Quraish. We may be captured and taken to Mecca. Some people’s thoughts went like this. There was dark cloud in the sky. It rained heavily. The Muslims enjoyed the rain by bathing, drinking and filling pots. The sands around them became firm. No difficulty to walk now.
But the same rain was unfavourable for the Quraish. The area of their camp became muddy. They could not even go to fetch water. They were panicked. The same rain was a blessing to the believers and a disaster in the enemy’s camp. The holy Qur’an presented this scene. The meaning of the eleventh verse of the eighth chapter of Al Anfal can be read as follows: “Remember the time when Allah covered you with sleep with peace from Him. To purify you and remove from you the mischief of the devil. And remember the time when He poured water on you from the sky to give strength to your minds and to keep your feet firm.”
This is how Ali(R) shares his memories of this crucial night. We had a good rain during the night. Everyone slept well at night. But the Prophetﷺ stayed beneath a tree trunk in prayer until dawn.
It was on the seventeenth Friday of Ramadan in the second year of Hijra. The Holy Prophetﷺ, who was in prostration for a long time, sat repeating the mantra “Ya Hayyu Ya Qayyum” and then prayed. “Oh Allah, if this small group is eliminated, You will not be worshipped here”.